The authors declared that they have no conflicts of interest.
On the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles
Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Special Issue: Turtle Origins and Evolution
Volume 324, Issue 3, pages 244–254, May 15, 2015
How to Cite
2014. On the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B:244–254., , , , .
- Issue published online: 15 APR 2015
- Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 16 JUN 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 30 APR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 15 JAN 2014
- Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan
The shoulder girdle in turtles is encapsulated in the shell and has a triradiate morphology. Due to its unique configuration among amniotes, many theories have been proposed about the skeletal identities of the projections for the past two centuries. Although the dorsal ramus represents the scapular blade, the ventral two rami remain uncertain. In particular, the ventrorostral process has been compared to a clavicle, an acromion, and a procoracoid based on its morphology, its connectivity to the rest of the skeleton and to muscles, as well as with its ossification center, cell lineage, and gene expression. In making these comparisons, the shoulder girdle skeleton of anurans has often been used as a reference. This review traces the history of the debate on the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles. And based on the integrative aspects of developmental biology, comparative morphology, and paleontology, we suggest acromion and procoracoid identities for the two ventral processes. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 244–254, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.