Gene therapy for the treatment of heart failure is emerging as a multidisciplinary field demonstrating advances with respect to identifying key signaling pathways, modernized vector creation and delivery technologies. Although these discoveries offer significant progress, selecting optimal methods for the vector delivery remains a key component for efficient cardiac gene therapy to validate the targets in rodent models and to test clinically relevant ones in pre-clinical models. Although the goals of higher transduction efficiency and cardiac specificity can be achieved with several delivery methods, the invasiveness and patient safety remain unclear for clinical application. In this review, we discuss various features of the currently available vector delivery methods for cardiac gene therapy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.