Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics

Cover image for Vol. 119 Issue 11

November 2014

Volume 119, Issue 11

Pages i–v, 8721–9320

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    1. Issue Information (pages i–v)

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50681

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    1. Solar and Heliospheric Physics

      A statistical analysis of heliospheric plasma sheets, heliospheric current sheets, and sector boundaries observed in situ by STEREO (pages 8721–8732)

      Y. C.-M. Liu, J. Huang, C. Wang, B. Klecker, A. B. Galvin, K. D. C. Simunac, M. A. Popecki, L. Kistler, C. Farrugia, M. A. Lee, H Kucharek, A. Opitz, J. G. Luhmann and Lan Jian

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019956

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      Key Points

      • The HPSs can either straddle or border the HCSs
      • STEREO A and B usually observed similar types of HPSs
      • HPSs are continuous flow from the Sun
    2. The case for a common spectrum of particles accelerated in the heliosphere: Observations and theory (pages 8733–8749)

      L. A. Fisk and G. Gloeckler

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020426

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      Key Points

      • Particles accelerated in the heliosphere have a common spectrum
      • Traditional acceleration mechanisms do not yield the common spectrum
      • A pump acceleration mechanism does yield the common spectrum
    3. Generation and propagation of ion cyclotron waves in nonuniform magnetic field: Application to the corona and solar wind (pages 8750–8763)

      N. Omidi, C. T. Russell, L. K. Jian, P. Isenberg and H. Y. Wei

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020315

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      Key Points

      • Ion cyclotron waves are generated in corona and solar wind
      • Ion temperature anisotropy is responsible for wave generation
      • Wave generation and absorption take place at all radial distances
    4. Magnetospheric Physics

      Three-dimensional data assimilation and reanalysis of radiation belt electrons: Observations of a four-zone structure using five spacecraft and the VERB code (pages 8764–8783)

      A. C. Kellerman, Y. Y. Shprits, D. Kondrashov, D. Subbotin, R. A. Makarevich, E. Donovan and T. Nagai

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020171

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      Key Points

      • Three dimensional reanalysis is validated using three different spacecraft sets
      • Reanalysis relieved a most unusual four-zone structure formed in March 1991
      • Flux increases during a substorm on March 26 were adiabatic above about 400 keV
    5. Characteristics of precipitating energetic electron fluxes relative to the plasmapause during geomagnetic storms (pages 8784–8800)

      Ian C. Whittaker, Mark A. Clilverd and Craig J. Rodger

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020446

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      Key Points

      • Energetic electron precipitation from wave interaction
      • Model of electron precipitation using Dst
      • Comparison of chorus and hiss effects
    6. Modeling magnetospheric response to synthetic Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind: ULF wave fields in the magnetosphere (pages 8801–8812)

      S. L. McGregor, M. K. Hudson and W. J. Hughes

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020000

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      Key Points

      • Driving magnetosphere simulations with synthetic Alfvenic fluctuations
      • Alfvenic fluctuations in the solar wind enhancing KH in the magnetosphere
      • SW Alfvenic fluctuations cause broadband Ephi ULF fluctuations in magnetosphere
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Initial measurements of O-ion and He-ion decay rates observed from the Van Allen probes RBSPICE instrument (pages 8813–8819)

      Andrew Gerrard, Louis Lanzerotti, Matina Gkioulidou, Donald Mitchell, Jerry Manweiler, Jacob Bortnik and Kunihiro Keika

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020374

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      Key Points

      • We report initial observations of ring current ions
      • We show that He-ion decay rates are consistent with theory
      • We show that O-ions with energies greater than 500 keV decay very rapidly
    8. Electron losses from the radiation belts caused by EMIC waves (pages 8820–8837)

      Tobias Kersten, Richard B. Horne, Sarah A. Glauert, Nigel P. Meredith, Brian J. Fraser and Russell S. Grew

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020366

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      Key Points

      • EMIC waves cause electron loss for pitch angles <60° and energies >2 MeV
      • The distribution left behind in space is a pancake distribution at E > 6 MeV
      • EMIC waves are unlikely to set an upper energy limit on the electron flux
    9. Morphology of magnetic field in near-Venus magnetotail: Venus express observations (pages 8838–8847)

      Z. J. Rong, S. Barabash, Y. Futaana, G. Stenberg, T. L. Zhang, W. X. Wan, Y. Wei, X.-D. Wang, L. H. Chai and J. Zhong

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020461

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      Key Points

      • Near ±E hemispheric flanks, the magnetic field is directed equatorward
      • Hemispheric asymmetry is suggested to be transported tailward from terminator
      • Tailward plasma acceleration is most efficient near the +E hemispheric flank
    10. Effects of discreteness of chorus waves on quasilinear diffusion-based modeling of energetic electron dynamics (pages 8848–8857)

      Xin Tao, Jacob Bortnik, Jay M. Albert, Richard M. Thorne and Wen Li

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020022

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      Key Points

      • Discreteness of chorus can make quasilinear theory not applicable
      • Nonlinear effects are important when chorus amplitude is large
      • Quasilinear model is applicable when element amplitude and separation are small
    11. Electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere (pages 8858–8880)

      J.-F. Ripoll, J. M. Albert and G. S. Cunningham

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020217

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      Key Points

      • Maps of electron lifetimes from interactions with narrowband waves (1.5 ≤ L ≤ 3.5)
      • Dependence of lifetimes with frequency, wave normal angle, energy, and L shell
      • Determination of minimum lifetimes and the associated optimal frequency
    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Surface current balance and thermoelectric whistler wings at airless astrophysical bodies: Cassini at Rhea (pages 8881–8901)

      B. D. Teolis, I. Sillanpää, J. H. Waite and K. K. Khurana

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020094

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      Key Points

      • Surface current balance condition yields a current system at astronomical bodies
      • Current system possible for sharp (airless) objects of any size
      • Current system is thermoelectric and motion through the plasma nonessential
    13. Energetic electron bursts in the plasma sheet and their relation with BBFs (pages 8902–8915)

      A. Y. Duan, J. B. Cao, M. Dunlop and Z. Q. Wang

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020169

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      Key Points

      • Over 60% of midtail PS energetic electron bursts (EEBs) are related with BBFs
      • Twenty percent of EEBs are related with BBFs in the braking region of BBFs
      • BBFs in the PS can transport energetic electrons earthward
    14. Modeling radiation belt electron acceleration by ULF fast mode waves, launched by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations (pages 8916–8928)

      A. W. Degeling, R. Rankin and Q.-G. Zong

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019672

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      Key Points

      • We model ULF waves and electron dynamics following an SSC
      • Observations of 25 November 2001 SSC are reproduced by the model
      • The SSC launches ULF waves which energize electrons by drift resonance
    15. Proton acceleration at two-dimensional dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail (pages 8929–8941)

      A. Greco, A. Artemyev and G. Zimbardo

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020421

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      Key Points

      • We study proton acceleration in a 2D-dipolarization front
      • We investigate the dependence of particle acceleration on model parameters
      • We compare our numerical results with observations
    16. Observations and modeling of EMIC wave properties in the presence of multiple ion species as function of magnetic local time (pages 8942–8970)

      Justin H. Lee and Vassilis Angelopoulos

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020469

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      Key Points

      • Using linear theory with typical low-energy composition to explore wave growth
      • Analyzing how low-energy components influence wave growth and propagation
      • Using waves as diagnostic of environmental properties including composition
    17. Test-particle simulation of energetic electron-H2O elastic collision along Saturn's magnetic field line around Enceladus (pages 8971–8978)

      Hiroyasu Tadokoro and Yuto Katoh

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019855

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      Key Points

      • Electron elastic collisions with H2O are simulated by test-particle simulation.
      • The loss rate of electrons within loss cone is 11.4% in ~380 s.
      • Calculated loss time is twice faster than loss time under strong diffusion.
    18. Evidence for the core field polarity of magnetic flux ropes against the reconnection guide field (pages 8979–8983)

      W.-L. Teh, M. Abdullah and A. M. Hasbi

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020509

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      Key Points

      • Core field polarity different from reconnection guide field was observed
      • Our finding differs from current theoretical simulation results
    19. Statistical altitude distribution of Cluster auroral electric fields, indicating mainly quasi-static acceleration below 2.8 RE and Alfvénic above (pages 8984–8991)

      B. Li, G. Marklund, L. Alm, T. Karlsson, P.-A. Lindqvist and A. Masson

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020225

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      Key Points

      • Quasi-static acceleration
      • Alfvénic acceleration
      • Statistical distribution
    20. Statistical results describing the bandwidth and coherence coefficient of whistler mode waves using THEMIS waveform data (pages 8992–9003)

      X. Gao, W. Li, R. M. Thorne, J. Bortnik, V. Angelopoulos, Q. Lu, X. Tao and S. Wang

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020158

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      Key Points

      • Discrete emissions have smaller bandwidth and larger coherence coefficient
      • Bandwidth increases with L, fpe/fce, but decreases with density and coherence
      • QL theory may be suitable for hiss-like waves but not for all discrete waves
    21. Evidence for the braking of flow bursts as they propagate toward the Earth (pages 9004–9018)

      M. Hamrin, T. Pitkänen, P. Norqvist, T. Karlsson, H. Nilsson, M. André, S. Buchert, A. Vaivads, O. Marghitu, B. Klecker, L. M. Kistler and I. Dandouras

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020285

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      Key Points

      • We find indications of plasma deceleration in the region −20 RE <X<−15 RE
      • Compressed magnetic flux tubes in DFs can decelerate incoming flow bursts
      • Energy conversion arguments can be used for studying flow braking
    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Characteristics of the flank magnetopause: Cluster observations (pages 9019–9037)

      S. Haaland, J. Reistad, P. Tenfjord, J. Gjerloev, L. Maes, J. DeKeyser, R. Maggiolo, C. Anekallu and N. Dorville

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020539

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      Key Points

      • The magnetopause posesses a dawn-dusk asymmetry
      • The flank magnetopause is thicker than the dayside magnetopause
      • The magnetopause often consists of layered current sheets
    23. An unusual long-lived relativistic electron enhancement event excited by sequential CMEs (pages 9038–9050)

      Xiao C. Yang, Guang W. Zhu, Xiao X. Zhang, Yue Q. Sun, Jin B. Liang and Xin H. Wei

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019797

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      Key Points

      • Multi acceleration mechanisms contribute to this strong enhancement event
      • The decay of enhanced outer zone is correlated to the location of plasmapause
    24. Magnetic field topology for northward IMF reconnection: Ion observations (pages 9051–9071)

      S. A. Fuselier, S. M. Petrinec, K. J. Trattner and B. Lavraud

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020351

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      Key Points

      • Ion observations show that dual-lobe reconnection occurs at the magnetopause
      • This dual-lobe reconnection is not simultaneous in both lobes
      • The reconnection produces characteristic ion distributions in the LLBL
    25. Mapping the electron energy in Jupiter's aurora: Hubble spectral observations (pages 9072–9088)

      J.-C. Gérard, B. Bonfond, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, J. T. Clarke, G. R. Gladstone, J. H. Waite, D. Bisikalo and V. I. Shematovich

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020514

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      Key Points

      • We present the first maps of the absorption of auroral FUV emission by methane
      • The penetration depth of auroral electrons layer is highly spatially variable
      • The electron energy reaches as much as 500 keV in the polar region
    26. Whistler-mode waves inside flux pileup region: Structured or unstructured? (pages 9089–9100)

      H. S. Fu, J. B. Cao, C. M. Cully, Y. V. Khotyaintsev, A. Vaivads, V. Angelopoulos, Q.-G. Zong, O. Santolík, E. Macúšová, M. André, W. L. Liu, H. Y. Lu, M. Zhou, S. Y. Huang and Z. Zhima

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020204

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      Key Points

      • Near-Earth FPR: structured chorus; midtail FPR: unstructured whistlers
      • Spatial inhomogeneity of magnetic field can explain such phenomenon
      • Rising-tone chorus can evolve into falling-tone chorus within <3 s
    27. Multispacecraft Cluster observations of quasiperiodic emissions close to the geomagnetic equator (pages 9101–9112)

      F. Němec, J. S. Pickett and O. Santolík

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020321

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      Key Points

      • Detailed analysis of three quasiperiodic events observed in the equatorial region
      • Coincident compressional magnetic field pulsations detected
      • Emissions observed closer to the Earth have a noticeable time delay
    28. Enhancement of ultralow frequency wave amplitudes at the plasmapause (pages 9113–9124)

      L. B. N. Clausen and K.-H. Glassmeier

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020072

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      Key Points

      • Case study shows ULF wave amplitude enhancement at the plasmapause
      • Statistical study confirms about 30% ULF wave amplitude increase
      • Amplitude increase might have implications for cavity modes inside plasmasphere
    29. Excitation of nightside magnetosonic waves observed by Van Allen Probes (pages 9125–9133)

      Qinghua Zhou, Fuliang Xiao, Chang Yang, Si Liu, C. A. Kletzing, W. S. Kurth, G. B. Hospodarsky, H. E. Spence, G. D. Reeves, H. O. Funsten, J. B. Blake, D. N. Baker and J. R. Wygant

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020481

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      Key Points

      • Correlated Van Allen Probe data of MS wave and proton ring
      • Growth rates are peaked at the harmonics of the proton gyrofrequency
      • MS waves propagate inward divergently and outward convergently
    30. Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss (pages 9134–9149)

      Danny Summers, Yoshiharu Omura, Satoko Nakamura and Craig A. Kletzing

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020437

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      Key Points

      • Plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission with complex fine structure
      • Hiss comprises discrete rising tone and falling tone elements
      • Amplitudes, phase profiles, and sweep rates of hiss elements are identified
    31. Ionospheric flow structures associated with auroral beading at substorm auroral onset (pages 9150–9159)

      Bea Gallardo-Lacourt, Y. Nishimura, L. R. Lyons, J. M. Ruohoniemi, E. Donovan, V. Angelopoulos, K. A. McWilliams and N. Nishitani

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020298

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      Key Points

      • Fast oscillating flow structure associated with susbtorm auroral onset beads
      • Clockwise flow shears associated with upward FACs observed as auroral beads
      • Substorm onset involves formation of fast earthward/tailward flow structures
    32. Extended lunar precursor regions: Electron-wave interaction (pages 9160–9173)

      Y. Harada, J. S. Halekas, A. R. Poppe, S. Kurita and J. P. McFadden

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020618

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      Key Points

      • Surface absorption causes electron anisotropy and whistler-mode wave growth
      • Lunar influence on electrons extends out to 10,000 km or more above the surface
      • Lunar magnetic anomalies suppress the electron anisotropy and whistlers
    33. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modeling the relativistic runaway electron avalanche and the feedback mechanism with GEANT4 (pages 9174–9191)

      Alexander Broberg Skeltved, Nikolai Østgaard, Brant Carlson, Thomas Gjesteland and Sebastien Celestin

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020504

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      Key Points

      • Testing the feedback mechanism with GEANT4
      • Validating the GEANT4 programming toolkit
      • Study the ratio of bremsstrahlung photons to electrons at TGF source altitude
    34. Study of the temporal correlations in the magnitude time series before major earthquakes in Japan (pages 9192–9206)

      Panayiotis A. Varotsos, Nicholas V. Sarlis and Efthimios S. Skordas

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020580

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      Key Points

      • Natural time reveals a characteristic change before major earthquakes
      • Long-ranged temporal correlations appear during the characteristic change
      • The correlations break down to random before main shock
    35. Correlations between ion density and temperature in the topside ionosphere measured by ROCSAT-1 (pages 9207–9215)

      Yoshihiro Kakinami, Shigeto Watanabe, Masa-yuki Yamamoto and Chi-Kuang Chao

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020302

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      Key Points

      • Correlation between ion temperature and ion density is investigated
      • The correlation has latitude and solar flux dependences
      • The correlation is not seen in IRI
    36. Occurrence of solar flares viewed with GPS: Statistics and fractal nature (pages 9216–9227)

      Enrique Monte-Moreno and Manuel Hernández-Pajares

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020206

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      Key Points

      • Statistical properties of the EUV solar flux sudden variation as a time series
      • Sudden overionization studied during one solar cycle from GNSS signals
      • The solar flux rate follows the Levy-Mandelbrot and fractional Brownian models
    37. Numerical simulation of the effects of meteoroid ablation and solar EUV/X-ray radiation in the dayside ionosphere of Mars: MGS/MEX observations (pages 9228–9245)

      B. M. Pandya and S. A. Haider

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020063

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      Key Points

      • First model results producing three ionization peaks simultaneously in daytime
      • Model shows that atmospheric ions are produced in the upper ionosphere
      • Metallic ions are formed in the middle ionosphere due to meteoroid ablation
    38. Observations and modeling of magnetic flux tube refilling of the plasmasphere at geosynchronous orbit (pages 9246–9255)

      M. H. Denton and J. E. Borovsky

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020491

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      Key Points

      • Theoretical estimates of refilling are inconsistent with observations
      • Number density observed ~100 cm−3 ~48 h after refilling commences
      • Neutral number density/composition key factors for the refilling rate at GEO
    39. Effects of inferring unobserved thermospheric and ionospheric state variables by using an Ensemble Kalman Filter on global ionospheric specification and forecasting (pages 9256–9267)

      Chih-Ting Hsu, Tomoko Matsuo, Wenbin Wang and Jann-Yenq Liu

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020390

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      Key Points

      • The impacts of ion-neutral coupling on ionospheric data assimilation are studied
      • Neutral composition is very effective to update on ionospheric data assimilation
      • The adjustment can last longer under the impact of thermospheric variables
    40. Airglow observations of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances from Yonaguni: Statistical characteristics and low-latitude limit (pages 9268–9282)

      V. Lakshmi Narayanan, K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka and S. Saito

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020368

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      Key Points

      • Disappearance of MSTID phase fronts associated with airglow enhancements
      • Detailed statistical study of MSTIDs over Yonaguni
      • MSTID occurrences are high during solar minimum conditions
    41. Low-latitude ionospheric effects of energetic electrons during a recurrent magnetic storm (pages 9283–9302)

      A. V. Suvorova, C.-M. Huang, H. Matsumoto, A. V. Dmitriev, V. E. Kunitsyn, E. S. Andreeva, I. A. Nesterov and L.-C. Tsai

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020349

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      Key Points

      • During a recurrent storm, energetic electrons enhance in forbidden zone
      • At recovery phase, TEC increases in the low-latitude ionosphere
      • Ionizing effect of energetic electrons is significant in the F region
    42. Characteristics of TLE-producing lightning in a coastal thunderstorm (pages 9303–9320)

      Shu-Chun Chang, Rue-Ron Hsu, Sung-Ming Huang, Han-Tzong Su, Cheng-Ling Kuo, Jung-Kung Chou, Li-Jou Lee, Yeng-Jung Wu and Alfred B. Chen

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019819

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      Key Points

      • A coastal thunderstorm produced more than 50 elves and other TLEs
      • Features of the TLE-parent lightning are analyzed using the associated sferics
      • The peak current threshold to produce discernible elves are examined

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