GPS velocities measured in the Pamir and surrounding regions show a total of ~30 mm/yr of northward relative motion between stable Pakistan and Eurasia. The convergence budget is partitioned into 10–15 mm/yr of localized shortening across the Trans-Alai Thrust, which bounds the Pamir on the north, consistent with southward subduction of intact lithosphere. Another 10–15 mm/yr of shortening is distributed across the Chitral Himalaya and Hindu Kush, suggesting that Hindu Kush seismicity might be related to northward subduction of Indian lithosphere. Modest shortening at <5 mm/yr occurs north of the Trans-Alai Thrust, across the South Tien Shan and between the Ferghana Valley and Eurasia. Negligible north-south shortening occurs within the high Pamir, but as much as 5 mm/yr, and perhaps 10 mm/yr, of east-west extension occurs within this region. This extension is matched by a comparable amount of east-west shortening in the Tajik Depression. The localization of shortening to the margins of the Pamir combined with observations of distributed internal extension implies that the east-west vertically averaged, horizontal compressive normal stress is smaller than the north-south compressive stress.