Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 5

May 2013

Volume 118, Issue 5

Pages 1845–2633

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Correction
    1. Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism/Marine Geology and Geophysics

      Environmental magnetic record of paleoclimate, unroofing of the Transantarctic Mountains, and volcanism in late Eocene to early Miocene glaci-marine sediments from the Victoria Land Basin, Ross Sea, Antarctica (pages 1845–1861)

      Andrew P. Roberts, Leonardo Sagnotti, Fabio Florindo, Steven M. Bohaty, Kenneth L. Verosub, Gary S. Wilson and James C. Zachos

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50151

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      Key Points

      • We synthesize Antarctic environmental magnetic results for a 17 Ma period
      • Late Eocene - early Oligocene variations were controlled by climate
      • Transantarctic Mountain unroofing and volcanism controlled later variations
    2. The role of farfield tectonic stress in oceanic intraplate deformation, Gulf of Alaska (pages 1862–1872)

      Robert S. Reece, Sean P. S. Gulick, Gail L. Christeson, Brian K. Horton, Harm van Avendonk and Ginger Barth

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50177

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    3. Did the Paleo-Asian Ocean between North China Block and Mongolia Block exist during the late Paleozoic? First paleomagnetic evidence from central-eastern Inner Mongolia, China (pages 1873–1894)

      Pan Zhao, Yan Chen, Bei Xu, Michel Faure, Guanzhong Shi and Flavien Choulet

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50198

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      Key Points

      • The first reliable paleomagnetic result from Inner Mongolia
      • NCB,IMB and MOB were welded together since at least Late Devonian
      • strike-slip movement dominated the welded new block
    4. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology

      Coupled subdaily and multiweek cycles during the lava dome eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (pages 1895–1903)

      A. Costa, G. Wadge, R. Stewart and H. Odbert

      Article first published online: 1 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50095

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      Key Points

      • We present observations and models for cyclic lava dome extrusions
      • We show that sub-daily cycles are modulated by multi-week cycles
      • We interpret observations in terms of physical models previously published
    5. Transfer functions of the well-aquifer systems response to atmospheric loading and Earth tide from low to high-frequency band (pages 1904–1924)

      Guijuan Lai, Hongkui Ge and Weilai Wang

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50165

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      Key Points

      • We obtained the high-frequency barometric responses for the first time
      • We calculated the aquifer parameters based on the tidal and barometric response
    6. Probabilistic modeling of future volcanic eruptions at Mount Etna (pages 1925–1935)

      Annalisa Cappello, Giuseppe Bilotta, Marco Neri and Ciro Del Negro

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50190

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      Key Points

      • Spatiotemporal maps for future vent opening using volcanological data are built
      • We forecast the expected number of eruptive events at the Etna summit craters
      • Our method is exportable to other volcanoes and to other hazardous phenomena
    7. Observing Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions with the autonomous NASA Volcano Sensor Web (pages 1936–1956)

      Ashley Gerard Davies, Steve Chien, Joshua Doubleday, Daniel Tran, Thorvaldur Thordarson, Magnús T. Gudmundsson, Ármann Höskuldsson, Steinunn S. Jakobsdóttir, Robert Wright and Daniel Mandl

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50141

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      Key Points

      • An autonomous sensor web observed the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruptions
      • Hyperion revealed the waxing and waning of activity during two eruptions
      • Effusion rates were underestimated but broadly followed actual activity
    8. Quartz grain boundaries as fluid pathways in metamorphic rocks (pages 1957–1967)

      Jörn H. Kruhl, Richard Wirth and Luiz F. G. Morales

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50099

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      Key Points

      • TEM and SEM/FIB sequential imaging show voids along quartz grain boundaries
      • Thermal contraction probably leads to up to 500 nm wide open grain boundaries
      • A network of cavities allows fluid circulation and affects rock properties
    9. Development of a new laboratory technique for high-temperature thermal emission spectroscopy of silicate melts (pages 1968–1983)

      Rachel J. Lee, Michael S. Ramsey and Penelope L. King

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50197

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      Key Points

      • A new laboratory method to collect high-T emissivity spectra of silicate melts
    10. Late-stage magma flow in a shallow felsic reservoir: Merging the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility record with numerical simulations in La Gloria Pluton, central Chile (pages 1984–1998)

      F. Gutiérrez, I. Payacán, S. E. Gelman, O. Bachmann and M. A. Parada

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50164

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      Key Points

      • Magnetic fabrics in La Gloria Pluton vary in a simple fashion
      • The simulated convective flow pattern insulates magma reservoirs
      • Magnetic fabric records the last increment of strain of convection
    11. Experimental constraints on the thermodynamics and sound velocities of hcp-Fe to core pressures (pages 1999–2016)

      Caitlin A. Murphy, Jennifer M. Jackson and Wolfgang Sturhahn

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50166

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      Key Points

      • Thermoelastic parameters for hcp-Fe derived from its measured phonon DOS
      • Volume-dependent vibrational entropy provides thermal expansion coefficient
      • New tight constraint on hcp-Fe's sound velocities at Earth's core pressures
    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Bayesian inversion of data from effusive volcanic eruptions using physics-based models: Application to Mount St. Helens 2004–2008 (pages 2017–2037)

      Kyle Anderson and Paul Segall

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50169

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      Key Points

      • Physics-based models of eruptions link magmatic processes with diverse data sets
      • Inverting with diverse data sets provides better constraint on model parameters
      • We estimate the geometry and properties of the Mount St. Helens magmatic system
    13. Numerical and experimental investigation of buoyancy-driven dissolution in vertical fracture (pages 2038–2048)

      Constantin Oltéan, Fabrice Golfier and Michel Antoine Buès

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50188

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      Key Points

      • Impact of buoyancy on fluid flow in fracture
    14. The propagation of compaction bands in porous rocks based on breakage mechanics (pages 2049–2066)

      Arghya Das, Giang D. Nguyen and Itai Einav

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50193

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      Keypoints

      • We study the propagation of compaction bands using a novel continuum model
      • This model is driven by the micromechanics of grain crushing
      • It is the first to capture the micromechanics and patterns of compaction bands
    15. Graphite as a lubricating agent in fault zones: An insight from low- to high-velocity friction experiments on a mixed graphite-quartz gouge (pages 2067–2084)

      Kiyokazu Oohashi, Takehiro Hirose and Toshihiko Shimamoto

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50175

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      Key Points

      • Provide the mechanisms to form weak fault with large displacement.
      • Nonlinear decrease of friction with increasing graphite and shear strain.
      • Weakening due to the emergence of graphite-lubricated slip surface with shearing.
    16. Tectonic development of the Samail ophiolite: High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth and emplacement (pages 2085–2101)

      Matthew Rioux, Samuel Bowring, Peter Kelemen, Stacia Gordon, Robert Miller and Frank Dudás

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50139

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      Key Points

      • U-Pb zircon dates and Sm-Nd data constrain the tectonic history of the ophiolite
      • The data are consistent with ridge propagation during crustal growth
      • A sub-ophiolite thrust was established {less than or equal to}0.25-0.5 Ma after formation of the crust
    17. Seismology

      Ground motion prediction of realistic earthquake sources using the ambient seismic field (pages 2102–2118)

      M. A. Denolle, E. M. Dunham, G. A. Prieto and G. C. Beroza

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JB009603

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      Key Points

      • Direct comparison of spectral shapes of plasma-sheet electrons
      • High energy auroral electrons are directly come from the plasma sheet
      • Pitch-angle scattering at limited energy ranges
    18. Waveform tomography in 2.5D: Parameterization for crooked-line acquisition geometry (pages 2119–2137)

      B. R. Smithyman and R. M. Clowes

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50100

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      Key Points

      • Waveform tomography in 2.5D-better than 2D for crooked profiles
      • Full-waveform inversion in 2.5D yields superior results for crustal datasets
      • Detailed models of velocity and attenuation are produced in a case study
    19. Rayleigh wave constraints on the structure and tectonic history of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, East Antarctica (pages 2138–2153)

      David S. Heeszel, Douglas A. Wiens, Andrew A. Nyblade, Samantha E. Hansen, Masaki Kanao, Meijan An and Yue Zhao

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50171

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      Key Points

      • Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains underlain by thick lithosphere
      • Lithospheric structure consistent with Archean - Mesoproterozoic age globally
      • Repeated periods up uplift and erosion the last during the Mesozoic
    20. Recovery of plate coupling at a ruptured asperity (pages 2154–2163)

      Shingo Yoshida, Masao Nakatani and Naoyuki Kato

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50172

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      Key Points

      • Plate coupling recovery time Tcpl at a ruptured asperity was investigated.
      • The intrinsic cutoff time tcx was incorporated into friction laws.
      • Two state variable law with tcx led to a long Tcpl.
    21. Seismic attenuation in the Middle America Region and the frequency dependence of intrinsic Q (pages 2164–2175)

      L. A. Dominguez and P. M. Davis

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50163

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      Key Points

      • Separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in Mexico
      • Evaluation of the frequency dependance of Q
      • Leakage of energy into the mantle
    22. Structural controls on localized intraplate deformation and seismicity in Southern Australia: Insights from local earthquake tomography of the Flinders Ranges (pages 2176–2190)

      S. Pilia, N. Rawlinson, N. G. Direen, P. R. Cummins and N. Balfour

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50168

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      Key Points

      • Crustal extension across a rift due to microearthquakes is quantified
      • Regions of low Vp and Vp/Vs coincide with zones of elevated seismicity
      • Boundaries of Gawler Craton and Curnmona Province delineated at depth
    23. Extracting surface wave attenuation from seismic noise using correlation of the coda of correlation (pages 2191–2205)

      Jian Zhang and Xiaoning Yang

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50186

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      Key Points

      • Extracting attenuation from noise is upon resolving uneven noise distribution.
      • Spatial average shows meaningful attenuation information.
      • Correlation of the coda of correlation allows for reliable estimates from noise.
    24. Back-arc extension in the Andaman Sea: Tectonic and magmatic processes imaged by high-precision teleseismic double-difference earthquake relocation (pages 2206–2224)

      T. Diehl, F. Waldhauser, J. R. Cochran, K. A. Kamesh Raju, L. Seeber, D. Schaff and E. R. Engdahl

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50192

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      Key Points

      • Deficit in seismic strain-rate indicates intrusions at back-arc spreading ridge
      • Dike intrusions seen as the primary driver for earthquake swarms along the ridge
      • Skew in slip vectors suggests ongoing re-adjustment of the spreading ridge
    25. Interactions and triggering in a 3-D rate-and-state asperity model (pages 2225–2245)

      P. Dublanchet, P. Bernard and P. Favreau

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50187

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      Key Points

      • Modeling the interactions between coplanar asperities and creep.
      • A critical density of asperities controls earthquake statistics.
    26. The 3-D distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities in southwestern Japan and the western part of the Nankai subduction zone (pages 2246–2257)

      Tsutomu Takahashi, Koichiro Obana, Yojiro Yamamoto, Ayako Nakanishi, Shuichi Kodaira and Yoshiyuki Kaneda

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50200

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      Key Points

      • Random inhomogeneities in SW Japan are estimated by the peak delay time analysis
      • Presence of volcanic rocks is a possible origin of strong inhomogeneities
      • Subducted Kyushu Palau ridge shows anomalous random inhomogeneity
    27. Anisotropic amplitude variation of the bottom-simulating reflector beneath fracture-filled gas hydrate deposit (pages 2258–2274)

      G. Sriram, P. Dewangan, T. Ramprasad and P. Rama Rao

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50176

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      Key Points

      • Effect of fracture-filled gas hydrate on BSR amplitudes
      • class IV AVA can be used as a tool for detection of fracture-filled hydrate
      • HTI medium represents high angle fracture-filled gas hydrate deposits
    28. Systematic relocation of seismicity on Hawaii Island from 1992 to 2009 using waveform cross correlation and cluster analysis (pages 2275–2288)

      Robin S. Matoza, Peter M. Shearer, Guoqing Lin, Cecily J. Wolfe and Paul G. Okubo

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50189

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      Key Points

      • Systematic relative relocation of seismicity on Hawaii Island
      • Sharpening of earthquake clustering along faults, streaks, and magmatic features
      • Catalog useful for studying seismicity and deformation on Hawaii Island
    29. Imaging the shallow crust with local and regional earthquake tomography (pages 2289–2306)

      Cemal B. Biryol, Garrett M. Leahy, George Zandt and Susan L. Beck

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50115

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      Key Points

      • Local, regional earthquake tomography are used to reveal upper crustal structure
      • Finite-frequency approximation helps to obtain more detailed crustal images
      • Images can provide starting models for higher resolution active-source studies
    30. Multiple transition zone seismic discontinuities and low velocity layers below western United States (pages 2307–2322)

      B. Tauzin, R. D. van der Hilst, G. Wittlinger and Y. Ricard

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50182

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      Key Points

      • We image seismically mantle discontinuities beneath western US.
      • We find and map multiple discontinuities and low–velocity layers.
      • Velocity reductions are common and suggest effects of composition.
    31. Imaging lithospheric structure of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis: New insights from receiver function analysis (pages 2323–2332)

      Qiang Xu, Junmeng Zhao, Shunping Pei and Hongbing Liu

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50162

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      Key Points

      • We image the lithospheric structure of eastern Himalayan synstaxis
      • The Tibetan plate exhibits a gap beneath Namche Barwa syntaxis
      • The Asian plate has advanced southward to about 30°N
    32. Lithosphere structure and thickness beneath the North China Craton from joint inversion of ambient noise and surface wave tomography (pages 2333–2346)

      Youcai Tang, Y. John Chen, Shiyong Zhou, Jieyuan Ning and Zhifeng Ding

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50191

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      Key Points

      • rifts around Ordos evolved under different mechanism
      • lithospheric structures are different a lot between Ordos and Huabei plain
      • Huabei plain and rifts system around Ordos have very thin lithosphere
    33. Spatio-temporal variations of double-couple aftershock mechanisms and possible volumetric earthquake strain (pages 2347–2355)

      Z. E. Ross and Y. Ben-Zion

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50202

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      Key Points

      • We observe rotations of DC-constrained mechanisms of Landers aftershocks.
      • The rotations are larger and have longer duration near the rupture zone edges.
      • The results may reflect isotropic terms neglected in deriving the DC mechanisms.
    34. Geodesy and Gravity/Tectonophysics

      Real episodic growth of continental crust or artifact of preservation? A 3-D geodynamic model (pages 2356–2370)

      Uwe Walzer and Roland Hendel

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50150

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      Key Points

      • A physically based model reproduces episodicity in continental crust production
      • A 3-D geodynamic model simulates realistic distributions of continents
      • Modeled episodicity istemporally associated with observed zircon age data
    35. A decade of horizontal deformation from great earthquakes (pages 2371–2381)

      P. Tregoning, R. Burgette, S. C. McClusky, S. Lejeune, C. S. Watson and H. McQueen

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50154

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      Key Points

      • 21st Century great earthquakes have deformed nearly the entire Earth's surface
      • Far-field co-seismic deformations cause horiz. velocity errors of ~ 0.4 mm/yr
      • The majority of the Australian continent is deforming at < 0.2 mm/yr
    36. Comparisons of atmospheric data and reduction methods for the analysis of satellite gravimetry observations (pages 2382–2396)

      E. Forootan, O. Didova, J. Kusche and A. Löcher

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50160

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      Key Points

      • Improving the atmospheric de-aliasing products for reduction of gravity missions
      • Exploring the impacts of different assumptions within the process of products
      • Exploring the impact of input atmospheric fields using ECMWFop and ERA-Interim
    37. Detecting offsets in GPS time series: First results from the detection of offsets in GPS experiment (pages 2397–2407)

      Julien Gazeaux, Simon Williams, Matt King, Machiel Bos, Rolf Dach, Manoj Deo, Angelyn W Moore, Luca Ostini, Elizabeth Petrie, Marco Roggero, Felix Norman Teferle, German Olivares and Frank H. Webb

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50152

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      Key Points

      • Manual and automatic GPS offset detection methods are tested
      • Manual approaches yield smaller velocity biases
      • Care must be taken when interpreting single-site velocities <1mm/yr
    38. Kinematics of the Pamir and Hindu Kush regions from GPS geodesy (pages 2408–2416)

      Anatoli Ischuk, Rebecca Bendick, Anatoly Rybin, Peter Molnar, Shah Faisal Khan, Sergey Kuzikov, Solmaz Mohadjer, Umed Saydullaev, Zhyra Ilyasova, Gennady Schelochkov and Alexander V. Zubovich

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50185

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      Key Points

      • There is a major surface zone of shortening corresponding to the Hindu Kush
      • There are two marginal north-south shortening zones bounding the Pamir
      • East-west extension of the Pamir matches shortening in the Tajik Depression
    39. Geological CO2 sequestration in multi-compartment reservoirs: Geomechanical challenges (pages 2417–2428)

      N. Castelletto, G. Gambolati and P. Teatini

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50180

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      Key Points

      • 3D model of 1×106 ton/a of CO2 injection in a faulted reservoir in Italy
      • Accurate characterization of the faulted geological structure
      • Shear failure/fault reactivation occur before achieving fracturing overpressure
    40. DynEarthSol2D: An efficient unstructured finite element method to study long-term tectonic deformation (pages 2429–2444)

      E. Choi, E. Tan, L. L. Lavier and V. M. Calo

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50148

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      Key Points

      • DynEarthSol2D is a new efficient solver for long-term tectonic modeling
      • DynEarthSol2D provides a generic elasto-vico-plastic constitutive model
      • Efficiency is achieved by a priori and dynamic mesh refinement
    41. Annual modulation of non-volcanic tremor in northern Cascadia (pages 2445–2459)

      Fred F. Pollitz, Aaron Wech, Honn Kao and Roland Bürgmann

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50181

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      Key Points

      • Non-volcanic tremor beneath southern Vancouver Island has a strong annual signal
      • ETS occurrence is anti-correlated with the surface precipitation load
      • Two independent tremor catalogs are consistent with one another
    42. Heterogeneous rupture in the great Cascadia earthquake of 1700 inferred from coastal subsidence estimates (pages 2460–2473)

      Pei-Ling Wang, Simon E. Engelhart, Kelin Wang, Andrea D. Hawkes, Benjamin P. Horton, Alan R. Nelson and Robert C. Witter

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50101

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      Key Points

      • New miscrofossil data better define coseismic subsidence
      • The 1700 great Cascadia earthquake exhibited heterogeneous slip
      • Heterogeneous slip model is consistent with worldwide observations
    43. The role of viscous magma mush spreading in volcanic flank motion at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i (pages 2474–2487)

      C. Plattner, F. Amelung, S. Baker, R. Govers and M. Poland

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50194

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      Key Points

      • Development of a viscoelastic model simulating volcanic spreading
      • Gravitational spreading of the deep rift causes flank motion at Kilauea Volcano
      • This deformation process contributes to subsidence at Kilauea summit
    44. Melt and shear interactions in the lithosphere: Theory and numerical analysis of pure shear extension (pages 2488–2499)

      Arash Mohajeri, Yaron Finzi, Hans Muhlhaus and Gideon Rosenbaum

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50183

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      Key Points

      • Stress-driven melt segregation may induce shear- or Melt dominated deformation
      • Melt infiltration may enable rifting of normal continental lithospheres
      • Melt-shear interactions affect melt-distribution patterns in extension
    45. On the nature of GPS draconitic year periodic pattern in multivariate position time series (pages 2500–2511)

      A. R. Amiri-Simkooei

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50199

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      Key Points

      • Precise estimate of GPS draconitic year period is 351.6+-0.2
      • GPS draconitic periodic pattern is of similar nature at adjacent stations
      • Assessment of noise in GPS time series; e.g. temporal and spatial correlation
    46. Quasi-periodic slow slip events in the afterslip area of the 1996 Hyuga-nada earthquakes, Japan (pages 2512–2527)

      Hiroshi Yarai and Shinzaburo Ozawa

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50161

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      Key Points

      • Coexistence of afterslip and slow slip events in the same area
      • Moment magnitude of aseismic slip is much larger than those of main shocks
      • Afterslip and slow slip events increase the risk of earthquakes
    47. Evaluation of Wasatch fault segmentation and slip rates using Lake Bonneville shorelines (pages 2528–2543)

      Paul W. Jewell and Ronald L. Bruhn

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50174

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      Key Points

      • Lacustrine shoreline deformation challenges normal fault characteristic models
      • Segment boundaries of the Wasatch fault may not arrest rupturing earthquakes
      • Bonneville shorelines document flexural and rotational nature of Wasatch fault
    48. Rayleigh-Taylor instability, lithospheric dynamics, surface topography at convergent mountain belts, and gravity anomalies (pages 2544–2557)

      Peter Molnar and Gregory A. Houseman

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50203

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      Key Points

      • Lithospheric dynamics supports only modest topography of mountain belts
      • geophysical observations are not likely to distinguish such topography
      • gravity anomalies are a crucial observation to examine dynamic topography
    49. Chemical controls on fault behavior: Weakening of serpentinite sheared against quartz-bearing rocks and its significance for fault creep in the San Andreas system (pages 2558–2570)

      Diane E. Moore and David A. Lockner

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50140

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      Key Points

      • Serpentinite is markedly weakened when sheared against quartz-bearing rocks
      • The weakening is interpreted in terms of solution-transfer processes
      • Our results may explain the occurrence of creep in the San Andreas System
    50. On the lack of InSAR observations of magmatic deformation at Central American volcanoes (pages 2571–2585)

      S. K. Ebmeier, J. Biggs, T. A. Mather and F. Amelung

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50195

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      Key Points

      • InSAR survey of CAVA confirms lack of magmatic deformation, 2007-2010
      • Lack of magmatic deformation in CAVA is significant relative to other arcs
      • Measurement and analysis of lack of deformation at volcanoes yields useful data
    51. 3-D multiobservable probabilistic inversion for the compositional and thermal structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle. I: a priori petrological information and geophysical observables (pages 2586–2617)

      J. C. Afonso, J. Fullea, W. L. Griffin, Y. Yang, A. G. Jones, J. A. D. Connolly and S. Y. O'Reilly

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50124

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      Key Points

      • Probabilistic inversion for the temperature and composition of the upper mantle
      • Relationships between geophysical data and rock parameters
    52. The tidal displacement field at Earth's surface determined using global GPS observations (pages 2618–2632)

      Linguo Yuan, Benjamin Fong Chao, Xiaoli Ding and Ping Zhong

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50159

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      Key Points

      • 3-D tidal displacements for eight constituents are estimated at 456 IGS stations
      • The sub-millimeter tidal residuals display continental-scale spatial coherence
      • The results can potentially constrain Earth's interior structure
  2. Correction

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