Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 6

June 2013

Volume 118, Issue 6

Pages 2635–3273

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism/Marine Geology and Geophysics

      The dynamics of two-phase hydrothermal systems at a seafloor pressure of 25 MPa (pages 2635–2647)

      Liang Han, Robert P. Lowell and Kayla C. Lewis

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50158

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      Key Points

      • Vent fluid properties do not elucidate PT conditions of phase separation
      • Vapor and brine derived fluids may vent simultaneously
      • Two-phase flow in seafloor hydrothermal systems is not steady state
    2. Evidence for geomagnetic excursions recorded in Brunhes and Matuyama Chron lavas from the trans-Mexican volcanic belt (pages 2648–2669)

      Daniel M. Michalk, Harald N. Böhnel, Norbert R. Nowaczyk, Gerardo J. Aguírre-Diaz, Margarita López-Martínez, Steven Ownby and Jörg F. W. Negendank

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50214

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      Key Points

      • Evidence for at least 4 geomagnetic excursions in 59 Brunhes-Matuyama lava flows
      • 11 new Ar-Ar age determinations
      • Results confirm in 1 but disagree in 4 cases with previously published data
    3. Evidence for Late Eocene emplacement of the Malaita Terrane, Solomon Islands: Implications for an even larger Ontong Java Nui oceanic plateau (pages 2670–2686)

      Robert J. Musgrave

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50153

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      Key Points

      • Paleomagnetic data from Malaita Terrane require emplacement by Late Eocene
      • Conflicts with existing models for Solomons-Ontong Java Plateau collision
      • Malaita Terrane was additional fragment rifted from Ontong Java Nui megaplateau
    4. A synthesis of heat flow determinations and thermal modeling along the Nankai Trough, Japan (pages 2687–2702)

      Robert Harris, Makoto Yamano, Masataka Kinoshita, Glenn Spinelli, Hideki Hamamoto and Juichiro Ashi

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50230

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      Key Points

      • Thermal regime of Shikoku Basin consistent with normal oceanic crust
      • Heat flow along Nankai Trough is anomalously high
      • Hydrothermal circulation within subducting crust leads to high heat flow
    5. Coupled discrete element modeling of fluid injection into dense granular media (pages 2703–2722)

      Fengshou Zhang, Branko Damjanac and Haiying Huang

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50204

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      Key Points

      • Fluid injection into dense granular media modeled numerically
      • Numerically produced displacement patterns consistent with experiments
      • Material parameters scaling verified numerically
    6. Fast inversion of magnetic field maps of unidirectional planar geological magnetization (pages 2723–2752)

      Eduardo A. Lima, Benjamin P. Weiss, Laurent Baratchart, Douglas P. Hardin and Edward B. Saff

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50229

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      Key Points

      • Superior inversions of scanning magnetic microscopy data can be quickly obtained
      • The inversion of unidirectional magnetizations with finite extension is unique
      • Enhanced regularization tames artifacts that may appear in the solution
    7. An integrated archeomagnetic and C14 study on pre-Columbian potsherds and associated charcoals intercalated between Holocene lacustrine sediments in Western Mexico: Geomagnetic implications (pages 2753–2763)

      B. Aguilar Reyes, A. Goguitchaichvili, J. Morales, V. H. Garduño, M. Pineda, C. Carvallo, Tomas González Moran, Isabel Israde and Manuel Calvo Rathert

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50196

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      Key Points

      • Relationship between archeointensity and climate
      • Absolute Geomagnetic Intensity Variation over the last 2 Milenia
      • Archeomagnetic reference curve for Mesoamerica
    8. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology

      Role of heat advection in a channeled lava flow with power law, temperature-dependent rheology (pages 2764–2776)

      Marilena Filippucci, Andrea Tallarico and Michele Dragoni

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50136

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      Key Points

      • Cooling of lava flow with temperature dependent non linear rheology
      • Analyzing the role of heat advection on cooling and on crust formation
      • Numerical solution of dynamic and thermal equations in 3d with finite volume
    9. Using environmental tracers and numerical simulation to investigate regional hydrothermal basins—Norris Geyser Basin area, Yellowstone National Park, USA (pages 2777–2787)

      W. Payton Gardner, David D. Susong, D. Kip Solomon and Henry P. Heasler

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50210

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      Key Points

      • Numerical simulation of regional hydrothermal basins
      • Reproduces processes inferred from geochemical signals
      • Integrated local to regional groundwater and heat flow in high heat flow area
    10. Permeability and frictional strength of cation-exchanged montmorillonite (pages 2788–2798)

      J. Behnsen and D. R. Faulkner

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50226

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      Key Points

      • Studied frictional strength and permeability of cation-exchanged smectites
      • K-montmorillonite is frictionally stronger than Na-,Ca-,Mg-montmorillonite
      • K-montmorillonite is more permeable than Na-,Ca-,Mg-montmorillonite
    11. Pore space relevant for gas permeability in Opalinus clay: Statistical analysis of homogeneity, percolation, and representative volume element (pages 2799–2812)

      Lukas M. Keller, Lorenz Holzer, Philipp Schuetz and Philippe Gasser

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50228

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      Key Points

      • Shale microstructures were analyzed by local porosity- and percolation theory
      • The pore space is anisotropic in connectivity and percolation threshold
      • The occurrence of pathways for gas transport likely depends on the clay content
    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Damage and seismic velocity structure of pulverized rocks near the San Andreas Fault (pages 2813–2831)

      Marieke Rempe, Thomas Mitchell, Jörg Renner, Stuart Nippress, Yehuda Ben-Zion and Thomas Rockwell

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50184

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      Key Points

      • Seismic velocities of pulverized rocks agree with their microstructures.
      • Pulverized rock velocities scale, suggesting that micro-scale damage dominates.
      • Damage fabric is consistent with existing models for pulverized rock generation.
    13. Seismology

      Source process of long-period seismic events at Taal volcano, Philippines: Vapor transportation and condensation in a shallow hydrothermal fissure (pages 2832–2846)

      Yuta Maeda, Hiroyuki Kumagai, Rudy Lacson Jr., Melquiades S. Figueroa II and Tadashi Yamashina

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50205

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      Key Points

      • A swarm of LP events was observed with a peak frequency of 0.8 Hz and Q = 6
      • Waveforms are explained by a resonance in a shallow, dipping vapor-filled crack
      • Vapor condensation is proposed as a triggering mechanism of the events
    14. Earthquake clusters in southern California I: Identification and stability (pages 2847–2864)

      Ilya Zaliapin and Yehuda Ben-Zion

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50179

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      Key Points

      • Earthquake clusters are identified in southern California
      • Accuracy and stability of detection is tested using ETAS model
      • Several new cluster features are reported
    15. Earthquake clusters in southern California II: Classification and relation to physical properties of the crust (pages 2865–2877)

      Ilya Zaliapin and Yehuda Ben-Zion

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50178

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      Key Points

      • Four main types of earthquake clusters in southern California are detected.
      • Earthquake cluster type is defined via topological characterization.
      • Earthquake cluster type is related to the physical properties of the crust.
    16. Radially anisotropic structure beneath the Shikoku Basin from broadband surface wave analysis of ocean bottom seismometer records (pages 2878–2892)

      A. Takeo, K. Nishida, T. Isse, H. Kawakatsu, H. Shiobara, H. Sugioka and T. Kanazawa

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50219

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      Key Points

      • We analyzed both vertical and horizontal records of ocean bottom seismometers
      • We analyzed broadband (7-117s) surface waves by combining two methods
      • Obtained structure shows sharp shear-wave velocity reduction at 40-70 km depth.
    17. Precise relative earthquake location using surface waves (pages 2893–2904)

      K. Michael Cleveland and Charles J. Ammon

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50146

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      Key Points

      • Surface waves can be used to achieve precise relative epicentroid locations
    18. Estimation of velocity change using repeating earthquakes with different locations and focal mechanisms (pages 2905–2914)

      Chinaemerem O. Kanu, Roel Snieder and Dan O'Connell

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50206

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      Key Points

      • Resolve velocity change with differing sources
      • Use of differing sources needs to be constrained
      • Constraint on the source location difference depends on the signal properties
    19. Seismic evidence for a slab tear at the Puerto Rico Trench (pages 2915–2923)

      Hallie E. Meighan, Jay Pulliam, Uri ten Brink and Alberto M. López-Venegas

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50227

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      Key Points

      • Ocean-bottom seismometer deployment increased hypocenter geometric constraints
      • Stress axes aligned with extension from flexure of subducting N.Amer. plate
      • Two stress regimes indicates different processes thus slabtear located inbetween
    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Large nucleation before large earthquakes is sometimes skipped due to cascade-up—Implications from a rate and state simulation of faults with hierarchical asperities (pages 2924–2952)

      Hiroyuki Noda, Masao Nakatani and Takane Hori

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50211

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      Key Points

      • A hierarchical asperity model has been realized in a rate-state framework.
      • Large earthquakes are generated by cascade-up only sometimes.
      • Cascade-up requires preparation accompanied by elevated preseismic creep rate.
    21. Controls of earthquake faulting style on near field landslide triggering: The role of coseismic slip (pages 2953–2964)

      L. Tatard and J. R. Grasso

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50215

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      Key Points

      • Landslide spatial distributions collapse as a function of faulting style
      • Dip-slip eq trigger landslides at larger distances than oblique-slip eq
      • Surface-faulting eq trigger landslides at smaller distances than buried eq
    22. Intense interface seismicity triggered by a shallow slow slip event in the Central Ecuador subduction zone (pages 2965–2981)

      Martin Vallée, Jean-Mathieu Nocquet, Jean Battaglia, Yvonne Font, Monica Segovia, Marc Régnier, Patricia Mothes, Paul Jarrin, David Cisneros, Sandro Vaca, Hugo Yepes, Xavier Martin, Nicole Béthoux and Mohamed Chlieh

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50216

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      Key Points

      • This study documents how slow slip and seismicity can be intimately related
      • Microseismicity is driven by slow slip and often organized in specific families
      • Hypothesis of slow slip-induced seismicity is supported by direct observation
    23. Foreshocks during the nucleation of stick-slip instability (pages 2982–2997)

      Gregory C. McLaskey and Brian D. Kilgore

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50232

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      Key Points

      • Rapid loading can cause creeping faults to radiate seismic waves
      • Lab foreshocks are a byproduct of the nucleation of a larger instability
      • Slight geometrical mismatch of fault surfaces causes foreshock clustering
    24. Three-dimensional tsunami propagation simulations using an unstructured mesh finite element model (pages 2998–3018)

      Yusuke Oishi, Matthew D. Piggott, Takuto Maeda, Stephan C. Kramer, Gareth S. Collins, Hiroaki Tsushima and Takashi Furumura

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50225

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      Key Points

      • describe a highly accurate 3-D model of near-field tsunami propagation.
      • We demonstrate advantages of the present 3-D model over conventional 2-D models.
      • We apply the model to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and compare with observations.
    25. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean (pages 3019–3036)

      Steven van Benthem, Rob Govers, Wim Spakman and Rinus Wortel

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50235

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      Key Points

      • Tectonic reconstructions for the Caribbean validated by seismic tomography
      • Cenozoic Lesser Antilles and Mesozoic Greater Antilles subduction confirmed
      • Tomography gives insight into geodynamics of Lesser Antilles
    26. Geodesy and Gravity/Tectonophysics

      Petro-fabrics and seismic properties of blueschist and eclogite in the North Qilian suture zone, NW China: Implications for the low-velocity upper layer in subducting slab, trench-parallel seismic anisotropy, and eclogite detectability in the subduction zone (pages 3037–3058)

      Yi Cao, Haemyeong Jung and Shuguang Song

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50212

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      Key Points

      • Trench-parallel seismic anisotropy can be ascribed to eclogite and blueschist
      • Eclogite and blueschist can explain low velocity layer in subducting slab
      • Eclogite bodies could be detected at shallow subduction channel
    27. A domain decomposition approach to implementing fault slip in finite-element models of quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation (pages 3059–3079)

      B. T. Aagaard, M. G. Knepley and C. A. Williams

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50217

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      Key Points

      • We employ domain decomposition to implement fault slip in a finite-element code
      • We develop a preconditioner to accelerate convergence in quasi-static problems
      • Benchmarks for quasi-static and dynamic problems verify the implementation
    28. Generation of continental rifts, basins, and swells by lithosphere instabilities (pages 3080–3100)

      Loïc Fourel, Laura Milelli, Claude Jaupart and Angela Limare

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50218

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      Key Points

      • Conditions for stability and instability in continents of finite size
      • New convective pattern at the scale of an entire continent
      • Great similarity of the pattern with geological record
    29. Earthquake cycle deformation in the Tibetan plateau with a weak mid-crustal layer (pages 3101–3111)

      Phoebe M. R. DeVries and Brendan J. Meade

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50209

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      Key Points

      • We calculate velocities from repeated earthquakes with a weak mid-crustal layer
      • A 3-layer model explains pre- and post-seismic geodetic observations in Tibet
      • Estimated viscosity (<1e18.5 Pas) is consistent with a weak mid-crustal layer
    30. Detection of short-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, using GNSS data (pages 3112–3125)

      Takuya Nishimura, Takanori Matsuzawa and Kazushige Obara

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50222

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      Key Points

      • Short-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough are detected using GNSS data
      • Non-uniformly distributed SSEs (>150) occurred along the strike over 15 years
      • The ETS zone had a gap in cumulative SSE slip in Kii Channel, but not in Ise Bay
    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Antarctic contribution to sea level rise observed by GRACE with improved GIA correction (pages 3126–3141)

      Erik R. Ivins, Thomas S. James, John Wahr, Ernst J. O. Schrama, Felix W. Landerer and Karen M. Simon

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50208

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      Key Points

      • Antarctic GIA models are derived from new geological and geodetic constraints.
      • We derive GIA corrections for time-varying gravity trends using GPS data.
      • New GIA models reduce GRACE-based ice mass imbalance estimates by more than 50%.
    32. Coseismic and postseismic slip associated with the 2010 Maule Earthquake, Chile: Characterizing the Arauco Peninsula barrier effect (pages 3142–3159)

      Yu-nung Nina Lin, Anthony Sladen, Francisco Ortega-Culaciati, Mark Simons, Jean-Philippe Avouac, Eric J. Fielding, Benjamin A. Brooks, Michael Bevis, Jeff Genrich, Andreas Rietbrock, Christophe Vigny, Robert Smalley and Anne Socquet

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50207

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      Key Points

      • The Arauco area is the only place with shallower afterslip
      • The Arauco area owes its barrier effect to its large width
      • Co- and post-seismic effects may be responsible for the uplift of Arauco area
    33. The nature of the plate interface and driving force of interseismic deformation in the New Zealand plate-boundary zone, revealed by the continuous GPS velocity field (pages 3160–3189)

      Simon Lamb and Euan Smith

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50221

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      Key Points

      • Interseismic velocity field in New Zealand driven by dip slip on plate interface
      • Slow slip earthquakes modeled as an apparent partial coupling factor
      • Individual faults appear to play no role in interseismic velocity field
    34. Factors controlling early stage salt tectonics at rifted continental margins and their thermal consequences (pages 3190–3220)

      Rajesh Goteti, Christopher Beaumont and Steven J. Ings

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50201

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      Key Points

      • Margin tilt, salt flow and sediment aggradation controls salt basins
      • Rifted margin salt basins can perturb thermal structure of the lithosphere
      • Salt mobility affects thermal history of rifted margin sedimentary basins
    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A new driving mechanism for backarc extension and backarc shortening through slab sinking induced toroidal and poloidal mantle flow: Results from dynamic subduction models with an overriding plate (pages 3221–3248)

      W. P. Schellart and L. Moresi

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50173

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      Key Points

      • Slab rollback driven toroidal mantle flow causes trench-normal velocity gradient
      • The velocity gradient induces basal shear stresses that drive backarc extension
      • Backarc shortening results from overriding plate collision with subduction hinge
    36. Mechanics of nonplanar faults at extensional steps with application to the 1992 M 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake (pages 3249–3263)

      Elizabeth H. Madden, Frantz Maerten and David D. Pollard

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50237

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      Key Points

      • Models incorporating planar faults do not capture non-planar fault interactions
      • Mechanical models allow analyses of fault interactions to address fault strength
      • A crossing fault may be necessary for slip across a 3 km step
    37. Influence of viscosity pressure dependence on deep lithospheric tectonics during continental collision (pages 3264–3273)

      R. Gray and R. N. Pysklywec

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50220

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      Key Points

      • Viscosity pressure-dependence affects collision
      • Different continental lithosphere behaviors are discussed
      • Sensitivity analysis of deformation and activation volume

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