Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth

Cover image for Vol. 119 Issue 2

February 2014

Volume 119, Issue 2

Pages i–v, 767–1529

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    1. Issue Information (pages i–v)

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50328

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    1. Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism/Marine Geology and Geophysics

      Discrete-dual-porosity model for electric current flow in fractured rock (pages 767–786)

      Delphine Roubinet and James Irving

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010668

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      Key Points

      • Analytical formulation for fracture-matrix exchange at the fracture scale is integrated into discrete-fracture-network and finite-volume models for the fracture network and matrix domains, respectively
      • Method provides low-cost and accurate simulations of electric current flow in fractured media
      • Impact of the presence of fractures on electrical resistivity anisotropy and the spatial distribution of electric potential for a point-current-injection source are investigated
    2. P and S wave velocity measurements of water-rich sediments from the Nankai Trough, Japan (pages 787–805)

      Kai Schumann, Michael Stipp, Jan H. Behrmann, Dirk Klaeschen and Detlef Schulte-Kortnack

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010290

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      Key Points

      • Sonic velocity measurements conducted during triaxial deformation tests
      • Improved data processing of sonic velocity measurements
      • Differentiation of variably consolidated sediments using acoustic properties
    3. Magnetic mineralogy of pyroxenite xenoliths from Hannuoba basalts, northern North China Craton: Implications for magnetism in the continental lower crust (pages 806–821)

      Zhiyong Li, Jianping Zheng, Qingli Zeng, Qingsheng Liu and W. L. Griffin

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010599

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      Key Points

      • The Hannuoba pyroxenite xenoliths are weakly magnetic
      • Fe-rich spinel exsolution lamella in pyroxene is a significant magnetic mineral
      • Our findings suggest the limiting depth of magnetization at ~ 32 km
    4. Microearthquake evidence for reaction-driven cracking within the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse active hydrothermal deposit (pages 822–839)

      Claire W. Pontbriand and Robert A. Sohn

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010110

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      Key Points

      • We detect 32,078 very small, local microearthquakes at TAG active mound
      • We model earthquakes as reaction-driven fracturing from anhydrite deposition
      • Events reveal shallow secondary circulation system of the hydrothermal mound
    5. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology

      Influence of mineral fraction on the rheological properties of forsterite + enstatite during grain size sensitive creep: 3. Application of grain growth and flow laws on peridotite ultramylonite (pages 840–857)

      Miki Tasaka, Takehiko Hiraga and Katsuyoshi Michibayashi

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010619

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      Key Points

      • Microstructures of ultramylonite are compared with that of our experiments
      • Grain size ratio in the ultramylonite is identical to that from our experiments
      • We simulated grain size evolution based on our grain growth and flow laws
    6. Paired deformation sources of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) required by recent (1980–2010) deformation history (pages 858–879)

      Antonella Amoruso, Luca Crescentini and Ilaria Sabbetta

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010392

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      Key Points

      • Overall Campi Flegrei deformation pattern is steady during inflations/deflations
      • A single stationary source (4000 m deep) satisfies large-scale deformation
      • An additional shallower source beneath the Solfatara fumarolic field is required
    7. Chemically induced compaction bands: Triggering conditions and band thickness (pages 880–899)

      Ioannis Stefanou and Jean Sulem

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010342

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      Key Points

      • Compaction band instabilities due to cataclasis and dissolution in rocks
      • Strong chemoporomechanical coupling, grain breakage, and chemical softening
      • Regions of instability, compaction band thickness, and periodicity
    8. From transient to steady state deformation and grain size: A thermodynamic approach using elasto-visco-plastic numerical modeling (pages 900–918)

      M. Herwegh, T. Poulet, A. Karrech and K Regenauer-Lieb

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010701

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      Key Points

      • Stress-strain grain size evolution in numerical model
      • Strain-hardening, strains-oftening, steady state
      • Calibration with rock deformation experiments
    9. Intermittent and efficient outgassing by the upward propagation of film ruptures in a bubbly magma (pages 919–935)

      Atsuko Namiki and Takanori Kagoshima

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010576

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      Key Points

      • We perform decompression experiments to simulate the ascent of bubbly magmas
      • Void expansion propagates upward by film ruptures to originate outgassing
      • Film rupturing causes efficient outgassing and explosive gas emission
    10. Time-independent compaction behavior of quartz sands (pages 936–956)

      R. H. Brzesowsky, C. J. Spiers, C. J. Peach and S. J. T. Hangx

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010444

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      Key Points

      • Time-independent compaction of sands controls porosity during sediment burial
      • Compaction experiments on sands were combined with a microphysical model
      • Compaction seems to be controlled by contact asperity amplitude of the grains
    11. A transient method for measuring the DC streaming potential coefficient of porous and fractured rocks (pages 957–970)

      E. Walker, P. W. J. Glover and J. Ruel

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010579

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      Key Points

      • New streaming potential coefficient apparatus
      • New transient methodology
      • Initial data show extremely high quality data even to high salinities
    12. The influence of temperature, bulk composition, and melting on the seismic signature of the low-velocity layer above the transition zone (pages 971–983)

      Saswata Hier-Majumder, Ellen B. Keel and Anna M. Courtier

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010314

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      Key Points

      • One percent melt in the LVL above transition zone
      • Same melt volume fraction in subduction and plume settings
      • Electrical conductivity better matches observations with silicate melts
    13. Experimental simulation of chemomechanical processes during deep burial diagenesis of carbonate rocks (pages 984–1007)

      L. Neveux, D. Grgic, C. Carpentier, J. Pironon, L. Truche and J. P. Girard

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010516

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      Key Points

      • A new experimental setup is designed to investigate deeply buried reservoirs
      • The main process during carbonate deep diagenesis is pressure solution creep
      • Influence of stress on calcite solubility is very significant
    14. Seismology

      Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection (pages 1008–1019)

      A. McGarr

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010597

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      Key Points

      • The maximum magnitude of earthquakes induced by fluid injection can be capped
      • The upper-bound seismic moment is proportional to the volume of injected fluid
      • The largest fluid-induced earthquakes are caused by deep injection of wastewater
    15. Upper mantle seismic anisotropy at a strike-slip boundary: South Island, New Zealand (pages 1020–1040)

      Daniel W. Zietlow, Anne F. Sheehan, Peter H. Molnar, Martha K. Savage, Greg Hirth, John A. Collins and Bradford H. Hager

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010676

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      Key Points

      • Shear wave splitting measurements are made on and offshore South Island, NZ
      • Strong anisotropy spans a zone 100-200 km on each side of Alpine fault
      • Both thin viscous sheet and asthenospheric models match observed anisotropy
    16. Three-dimensional velocity structure of the outer fore arc of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone and implications for the 1958 megathrust earthquake rupture zone (pages 1041–1060)

      Lina Constanza García Cano, Audrey Galve, Philippe Charvis and Boris Marcaillou

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012JB009978

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      Key Points

      • Impact of upper plate structure on great earthquakes rupture zone
    17. S wave velocity structure in southwest China from surface wave tomography and receiver functions (pages 1061–1078)

      Weilai Wang, Jianping Wu, Lihua Fang, Guijuan Lai, Ting Yang and Yan Cai

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010317

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      Key Points

      • Obtain high-resolution surface tomography results
      • Show low velocity in upper mantle beneath rapid slip fault zones
      • Plateau material flow be blocked in two depth ranges and lateral scopes
    18. Oceanic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary from surface wave dispersion data (pages 1079–1093)

      G. Burgos, J.-P. Montagner, E. Beucler, Y. Capdeville, A. Mocquet and M. Drilleau

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010528

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      Key Points

      • The anisotropic parameters inverted from surface waves are sensitive to LAB
      • The shear velocity and azimuthal anisotropy proxies show age-dependent patterns
      • The radial anisotropy proxy presents a subhorizontal pattern as age increase
    19. Seismic attenuation tomography of the Northeast Japan arc: Insight into the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) and subduction dynamics (pages 1094–1118)

      Xin Liu, Dapeng Zhao and Sanzhong Li

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010591

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      Key Points

      • Detailed 3-D Qp and Qs models under entire Tohoku arc are determined
      • Pacific slab appears as a high-Q zone and low-Q zones exist in the mantle wedge
      • Megathrust earthquakes occurred in or around high-Q zones
    20. Constraints on the shallow velocity structure of the Lucky Strike Volcano, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, from downward continued multichannel streamer data (pages 1119–1144)

      A. F. Arnulf, A. J. Harding, G. M. Kent, S. C. Singh and W. C. Crawford

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010500

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      Key Points

      • A new method to create high-resolution tomographic images of the oceanic crust.
      • The central part of the Lucky Strike segment is shown to be anomalously magmatic
      • Hydrothermal sealing of porosity is progressing at normal to enhanced rates
    21. Source mechanism of Vulcanian eruption at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador, derived from seismic moment tensor inversions (pages 1145–1164)

      Keehoon Kim, Jonathan M. Lees and Mario C. Ruiz

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010590

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      Key Points

      • Seismic source mechanisms of Vulcanian explosions
      • Full moment tensor inversion of very long period seismic signals
      • Opening of an ellipsoidal magma cavity associated with volcanic explosions
    22. Structural heterogeneities around the megathrust zone of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake from tomographic inversion of onshore and offshore seismic observations (pages 1165–1180)

      Yojiro Yamamoto, Koichiro Obana, Shuichi Kodaira, Ryota Hino and Masanao Shinohara

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010582

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      Key Points

      • The plate boundary within 60 km of the trench axis has large amounts of water
      • Hypocenter of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake located in the high/low Vp/Vs boundary
      • Localized anomalies are related to the nucleation and distribution of rupture
    23. The stress field beneath a quiescent stratovolcano: The case of Mount Vesuvius (pages 1181–1199)

      Luca D'Auria, Bruno Massa and Ada De Matteo

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010792

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      Key Points

      • Seismicity of Vesuvius occurs within two separate seismogenic volumes
      • The top volume stress field can be related to an active spreading process
      • The bottom volume stress field is strongly imprinted by the regional one
    24. Anisotropy and Vp/Vs in the uppermost mantle beneath the western United States from joint analysis of Pn and Sn phases (pages 1200–1219)

      J. S. Buehler and P. M. Shearer

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010559

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      Key Points

      • USArray provides enough Sn data to image Vp/Vs structure in the mantle lid
      • We are unable to resolve shear-wave splitting directly in Sn waveforms
      • Pn and Sn time terms provide constraints on crustal thickness and velocity
    25. Gutenberg-Richter relation originates from Coulomb stress fluctuations caused by elastic rock heterogeneity (pages 1220–1234)

      C. Langenbruch and S. A. Shapiro

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010282

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      Key Points

      • Elastic heterogeneity causes strong Coulomb stress fluctuation of power law type
      • Gutenberg-Richter relation results from power law fluctuations of Coulomb stress
      • Universal fractal nature of elastic heterogeneity suggests a universal b value
    26. Crustal earthquake triggering by modern great earthquakes on subduction zone thrusts (pages 1235–1250)

      Joan Gomberg and Brian Sherrod

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012JB009826

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      Key Points

      • M > 8.6 subduction thrust earthquakes triggering M > 5.5 crustal events likely
      • M > 5.5 crustal quakes triggered atop M > 7.5 subduction thrust ruptures likely
    27. Predicting fault damage zones by modeling dynamic rupture propagation and comparison with field observations (pages 1251–1272)

      Madhur Johri, Eric M. Dunham, Mark D. Zoback and Zijun Fang

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010335

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      Key Points

      • Modeling fault damage zones using dynamic rupture propagation
      • Predicting fault damage zone attributes
      • Comparison of modeled damage zones with those observed in outcrop
    28. Crustal earthquake triggering by pre-historic great earthquakes on subduction zone thrusts (pages 1273–1294)

      Brian Sherrod and Joan Gomberg

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010635

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      Key Points

      • Extraordinary cluster of M >~6.5 crustal quakes in Cascadia Puget Sound region
      • The 1200-900 cal year B.P. cluster not triggered by great Cascadia thrust quake
      • Great Cascadia subduction thrusts may have triggered a few crustal earthquakes
    29. Interpretation of resonance frequencies recorded during hydraulic fracturing treatments (pages 1295–1315)

      J. B. Tary, M. van der Baan and D. W. Eaton

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010904

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      Key Points

      • Observation of stable resonances during two microseismic experiments
      • Analysis of source, path and receiver effects associated with each experiment
      • Resonances might correspond to mesoscale deformation or nonlaminar fluid flow
    30. Experimental investigation of strong ground motion due to thrust fault earthquakes (pages 1316–1336)

      Vahe Gabuchian, Ares J. Rosakis, Nadia Lapusta and David D. Oglesby

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010409

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      Key Points

      • Thrust fault earthquakes are produced in the laboratory
      • Both sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures are generated and studied
      • Surface ground motion signatures are recorded in real time
    31. Geodesy and Gravity/Tectonophysics

      Evaluating seasonal loading models and their impact on global and regional reference frame alignment (pages 1337–1358)

      Rong Zou, Jeffrey T. Freymueller, Kaihua Ding, Shaomin Yang and Qi Wang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010186

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      Key Points

      • Significant seasonal variations are found in many GPS coordinate time series
      • No seasonal variation models are assumed in the TRF alignment
      • Impact of seasonal variations on TRF based on GRACE or forward loading models
    32. Present-day kinematics and fault slip rates in eastern Iran, derived from 11 years of GPS data (pages 1359–1383)

      A. Walpersdorf, I. Manighetti, Z. Mousavi, F. Tavakoli, M. Vergnolle, A. Jadidi, D. Hatzfeld, A. Aghamohammadi, A. Bigot, Y. Djamour, H. Nankali and M. Sedighi

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010620

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      Key Points

      • New, dense GPS data constrains present-day kinematics in central eastern Iran
      • Current slip rates measured on most active faults in central eastern Iran
      • Convergence mainly accommodated through vertical axis block rotations
    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial and temporal patterns of Australian dynamic topography from River Profile Modeling (pages 1384–1424)

      K. Czarnota, G. G. Roberts, N. J. White and S. Fishwick

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010436

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      Key Points

      • Mantle convection supports 0.5-1 km of Eastern Highland topography
      • Local fluvial erosion data enable dating of landscape uplift from river profiles
      • River profile commonalities show dynamic topography grew during Cenozoic times
    34. Joint inversion in coupled quasi-static poroelasticity (pages 1425–1445)

      Marc A. Hesse and Georg Stadler

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010272

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      Key Points

      • Bayesian inversion for permeability variation from geodetic and hydraulic data
      • Newton-CG with adjoint derivatives of time dependent poroelastic equations
      • The coupled inversion is promising to detect flow barriers and monitor pressure
    35. Geometry and kinematics of the Main Himalayan Thrust and Neogene crustal exhumation in the Bhutanese Himalaya derived from inversion of multithermochronologic data (pages 1446–1481)

      Isabelle Coutand, David M. Whipp Jr., Djordje Grujic, Matthias Bernet, Maria Giuditta Fellin, Bodo Bookhagen, Kyle R. Landry, S. K. Ghalley and Chris Duncan

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010891

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      Key Points

      • Neogene tectonic model of the Bhutan Himalaya
      • Neogene upper-crustal exhumation history of the Bhutan Himalaya
      • Numerical modeling of low-temperature thermochronological data
    36. El Mayor-Cucapah (Mw 7.2) earthquake: Early near-field postseismic deformation from InSAR and GPS observations (pages 1482–1497)

      Alejandro Gonzalez-Ortega, Yuri Fialko, David Sandwell, F. Alejandro Nava-Pichardo, John Fletcher, Javier Gonzalez-Garcia, Brad Lipovsky, Michael Floyd and Gareth Funning

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010193

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      Key Points

      • GPS postseismic displacements exhibit rate-strengthening law time dependence
      • GPS and InSAR observations explained by a combination of postseismic mechanisms
      • Combined afterslip, fault zone contraction, and poroelastic rebound
    37. Long-period tidal variations in the length of day (pages 1498–1509)

      Richard D. Ray and Svetlana Y. Erofeeva

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010830

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      Key Points

      • A new model of LOD tidal oscillations with periods 1 week to 18.6 years
      • Dynamic ocean and anelastic mantle effects included for all constituents
      • The model largely eliminates tidal variance in observed Earth rotation data
    38. A microphysical model for fault gouge friction applied to subduction megathrusts (pages 1510–1529)

      Sabine A. M. den Hartog and Christopher J. Spiers

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010580

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      Key Points

      • Microphysical model developed for frictional shear of illite-quartz gouge
      • Model predicts main trends observed in experiments
      • Velocity-weakening (seismogenic) slip explained by pressure solution of quartz

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