Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth

Cover image for Vol. 119 Issue 3

March 2014

Volume 119, Issue 3

Pages i–v, 1531–2542

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Reply
    1. Issue Information (pages i–v)

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50329

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Reply
    1. Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism/Marine Geology and Geophysics

      Geomagnetic secular acceleration, jerks, and a localized standing wave at the core surface from 2000 to 2010 (pages 1531–1543)

      A. Chulliat and S. Maus

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010604

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      Key Points

      • Spatially anticorrelated secular acceleration pulses occurred in 2006 and 2009
      • These pulses resulted in geomagnetic jerks in 2003, 2007, and 2011
      • There is a standing wave at core surface, not caused by torsional oscillation
    2. The tectonic evolution of the Transbrasiliano Lineament in northern Paraná Basin, Brazil, as inferred from aeromagnetic data (pages 1544–1562)

      Julia B. Curto, Roberta M. Vidotti, Reinhardt A. Fuck, Richard J. Blakely, Carlos J. S. Alvarenga and Elton L. Dantas

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010593

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      Key Points

      • Transbrasiliano fault zone separates four tectonic domains in the Parana Basin
      • Magnetic sources are characterized within the basin, basement and lower crust
      • Structural reactivations controlled by the Transbrasiliano lineament
    3. Seismic constraints of the formation process on the back-arc basin in the southeastern Japan Sea (pages 1563–1579)

      Takeshi Sato, Tetsuo No, Shuichi Kodaira, Narumi Takahashi and Yoshiyuki Kaneda

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010643

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      Key Points

      • Crust in the northern Yamato Basin, Japan Sea, is a thicker oceanic crust
      • High-velocity lower crust might show melt formed by a high mantle temperature
      • Crust from the Sado Ridge to the coast is a rifted continental crust
    4. The peridotite ridge province in the southern Iberia Abyssal Plain: Seismic constraints revisited (pages 1580–1598)

      T. A. Minshull, S. M. Dean and R. B. Whitmarsh

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JB011011

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      Key Points

      • Oldest oceanic crust seaward of oldest seafloor-spreading magnetic anomaly
      • There is a 70-km-wide region of peridotite ridges
      • Dipping reflectors extend at least 2 km into unaltered mantle
    5. Influence of cooling rate on thermoremanence of magnetite grains: Identifying the role of different magnetic domain states (pages 1599–1606)

      Annika Ferk, Roman Leonhardt, Kai-Uwe Hess, Stephan Koch, Ramon Egli, David Krása and Donald B. Dingwell

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010845

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      Key Points

      • Cooling rate dependency of different magnetic domain states
      • Confirming string cooling rate dependency of single domain
      • No cooling rate dependency for multidomain
    6. Lacustrine turbidites as a tool for quantitative earthquake reconstruction: New evidence for a variable rupture mode in south central Chile (pages 1607–1633)

      Jasper Moernaut, Maarten Van Daele, Katrien Heirman, Karen Fontijn, Michael Strasser, Mario Pino, Roberto Urrutia and Marc De Batist

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010738

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      Key Points

      • Lacustrine turbidites accurately represent subduction earthquakes in Chile
      • Turbidite volume correlates with seismic intensity
      • Megathrust earthquake recurrence in Chile is spatially variable
    7. Nonstationary magnetotelluric data processing with instantaneous parameter (pages 1634–1654)

      M. Neukirch and X. Garcia

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010494

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      Key Points

      • Non stationary impedance estimation for the magnetotelluric method
      • Approach verified with synthetic, real, and non stationary data
    8. Crustal thinning in the northern Tyrrhenian Rift: Insights from multichannel and wide-angle seismic data across the basin (pages 1655–1677)

      S. Moeller, I. Grevemeyer, C. R. Ranero, C. Berndt, D. Klaeschen, V. Sallares, N. Zitellini and R. de Franco

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010431

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      Key Points

      • We show seismic lines crossing a rift from less to higher rifted crust
      • The style of rifting changes from symmetric to asymmetric
      • The rift developed W-E, and extension rates increase N-S leading to asymmetry
    9. Controls on segmentation and morphology along the back-arc Eastern Lau Spreading Center and Valu Fa Ridge (pages 1678–1700)

      Jonathan D. Sleeper and Fernando Martinez

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010545

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      Key Points

      • Axial morphology and second-order segmentation correlate with arc volcanoes
      • Abrupt changes in morphology/structure imply sharp mantle wedge boundary
      • New model incorporates geologic/geophysical/geochemical observations
    10. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology

      Effect of joint orientation on the hydromechanical behavior of singly jointed sandstone experiencing undrained loading (pages 1701–1717)

      P. L. P. Wasantha, P. G. Ranjith and D. R. Viete

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010600

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      Key Points

      • Study on undrained behavior of singly jointed sandstone specimens
      • Failure mechanism changes with joint orientation and confining pressure
      • Mechanical behavior of jointed rock depends on failure mechanism
    11. Triggering and modulation of geyser eruptions in Yellowstone National Park by earthquakes, earth tides, and weather (pages 1718–1737)

      Shaul Hurwitz, Robert A. Sohn, Karen Luttrell and Michael Manga

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010803

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      Key Points

      • Geysers are insensitive to stresses from earth tides and barometric pressure
      • Pool geyser eruption intervals lengthen in response to evaporation and heat loss
      • Dynamic stresses > 0.1 MPa are required to modulate eruption intervals
    12. On the velocity-strengthening behavior of dry friction (pages 1738–1748)

      Yohai Bar-Sinai, Robert Spatschek, Efim A. Brener and Eran Bouchbinder

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010586

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      Key Points

      • Velocity-strengthening behavior might be a generic feature of friction
      • Experimental data support the existence of velocity-strengthening friction
      • Velocity-strengthening friction may be important for frictional phenomena
    13. Constraining particle size-dependent plume sedimentation from the 17 June 1996 eruption of Ruapehu Volcano, New Zealand, using geophysical inversions (pages 1749–1763)

      M. Klawonn, L. N. Frazer, C. J. Wolfe, B. F. Houghton and M. D. Rosenberg

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010387

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      Key Points

      • We recover the particle size-dependent mass distribution along a weak plume
      • Particles smaller than 0.25 mm likely settled as aggregates
      • The settlement trends of single particles and aggregates are quite different
    14. Autofluidization of pyroclastic flows propagating on rough substrates as shown by laboratory experiments (pages 1764–1776)

      Corentin Chedeville and Olivier Roche

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010554

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      Key Points

      • Flows of fine particles on horizontal rough substrate can be autofluidized
      • Autofluidization is due to air escape from the substrate interstices
      • Autofluidization is expected to cause long runout of pyroclastic flows
    15. Displacement and dynamic weakening processes in smectite-rich gouge from the Central Deforming Zone of the San Andreas Fault (pages 1777–1802)

      M. E. French, H. Kitajima, J. S. Chester, F. M. Chester and T. Hirose

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010757

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      Key Points

      • Microstructures of CDZ gouge illustrate deformation processes
      • At coseismic slip rates, CDZ gouge is weak relative to interseismic creep strength
      • Estimated stability of CDZ is sensitive to Dc scaling relations
    16. Ice-melt rates in liquid-filled cavities during explosive subglacial eruptions (pages 1803–1817)

      D. C. Woodcock, S. J. Lane and J. S. Gilbert

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010617

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      Key Points

      • A model for boiling two-phase free convective heat transfer is developed
      • Heat transfer rates may be further increased by forced convection
      • Heat fluxes approach those inferred from observations of some recent eruptions
    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Rate- and strain-dependent brittle deformation of rocks (pages 1818–1836)

      N. Brantut, M. J. Heap, P. Baud and P. G. Meredith

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010448

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      Key Points

      • Deformation by brittle creep requires less energy than by imposed strain rate
      • An empirical relation between creep rate and energy deficit is exhibited
      • A relation between our empirical law and stress corrosion laws is determined
    18. The influence of slope breaks on lava flow surface disruption (pages 1837–1850)

      Lori S. Glaze, Stephen M. Baloga, Sarah A. Fagents and Robert Wright

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010696

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      Key Points

      • Models are developed for active lava flow surface disruption at a slope break
      • Surface disruption significantly affects core cooling, flow length, and advance rate
      • Disruption length scales depend on flow regime beyond slope break
    19. Pyroxenes as tracers of mantle water variations (pages 1851–1881)

      Jessica M. Warren and Erik H. Hauri

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010328

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      Key Points

      • Peridotite pyroxenes provide constraints on upper mantle water variations
      • Water in olivine is calculated from water in pyroxene and partition coefficients
      • Peridotites are relatively water rich for the residues of partial melting
    20. Path dependence of the potential for compaction banding: Theoretical predictions based on a plasticity model for porous rocks (pages 1882–1903)

      Giuseppe Buscarnera and Reed T. Laverack

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010562

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      Key Points

      • Advanced plasticity models allow a quantitative simulation of compaction banding
      • The potential for compaction bands is predicted to be sress path dependent
      • Kinematic constraints can inhibit compaction banding via irreversible effects
    21. Seismology

      Observations of static Coulomb stress triggering of the November 2011 M5.7 Oklahoma earthquake sequence (pages 1904–1923)

      Danielle F. Sumy, Elizabeth S. Cochran, Katie M. Keranen, Maya Wei and Geoffrey A. Abers

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010612

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      Key Points

      • Earthquakes along the Wilzetta fault have primarily strike-slip focal mechanisms
      • The M5.0 foreshock encouraged failure along the M5.7 mainshock rupture plane
    22. Alaska Megathrust 2: Imaging the megathrust zone and Yakutat/Pacific plate interface in the Alaska subduction zone (pages 1924–1941)

      YoungHee Kim, Geoffrey A. Abers, Jiyao Li, Douglas Christensen, Josh Calkins and Stéphane Rondenay

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010581

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      Key Points

      • We image Yakutat terrane and Pacific oceanic crust beneath Alaska
      • We image a megathrust fault zone with lack of thrust earthquake
      • We image the western edge of the Yakutat terrane beneath Kenai Peninsula
    23. Predicting time-to-failure in rock extrapolated from secondary creep (pages 1942–1953)

      Sheng-Wang Hao, Bao-Ju Zhang, Ji-Feng Tian and Derek Elsworth

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010778

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      Key Points

      • Relaxation experiments mimic localization and reactivation
      • Timing and energetics of rupture scale with an observable relaxation phase
      • Method to compute time to failure based on observations of early-time response
    24. The distribution of the mid-to-lower crustal low-velocity zone beneath the northeastern Tibetan Plateau revealed from ambient noise tomography (pages 1954–1970)

      Hongyi Li, Yang Shen, Zhongxian Huang, Xinfu Li, Meng Gong, Danian Shi, Eric Sandvol and Aibing Li

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010374

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      Key Points

      • Group and phase velocities are inverted in NE Tibet
      • The crustal LVZ thins out around the eastern Kunlun Mountains
      • The NW Qilian Orogen with deeper Moho features a weak crustal LVZ
    25. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath the northern Great Plains of North America (pages 1971–1985)

      Bin B. Yang, Stephen S. Gao, Kelly H. Liu, Ahmed A. Elsheikh, Awad A. Lemnifi, Hesham A. Refayee and Youqiang Yu

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010561

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      Key Points

      • We measured over 4000 pairs of splitting parameters
      • We proposed a model involving flow deflection
      • Results have broader impacts
    26. Quasi-dynamic versus fully dynamic simulations of earthquakes and aseismic slip with and without enhanced coseismic weakening (pages 1986–2004)

      Marion Y. Thomas, Nadia Lapusta, Hiroyuki Noda and Jean-Philippe Avouac

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010615

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      Key Points

      • With enhanced weakening, fully dynamic runs produce pulse-like ruptures
      • In the same cases, quasi-dynamic runs yield much larger crack-like ruptures
      • The rupture-mode differences dramatically affect long-term fault behavior
    27. Separating body and Rayleigh waves with cross terms of the cross-correlation tensor of ambient noise (pages 2005–2018)

      Ryota Takagi, Hisashi Nakahara, Toshio Kono and Tomomi Okada

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010824

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      Key Points

      • Fundamental characteristics of ZR and RZ noise correlations are derived
      • ZR and RZ correlations can separate rectilinear P and elliptic Rayleigh waves
      • Seismic array data analysis validates the developed method
    28. Can we test for the maximum possible earthquake magnitude? (pages 2019–2028)

      M. Holschneider, G. Zöller, R. Clements and D. Schorlemmer

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010319

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      Key Points

      • Mmax is poorly constrained by data
      • Mmax is not testable on the basis of earthquake catalogs
      • Longterm geological data can reduce uncertainties of Mmax
    29. Systematic survey of high-resolution b value imaging along Californian faults: Inference on asperities (pages 2029–2054)

      T. Tormann, S. Wiemer and A. Mignan

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010867

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      Key Points

      • Introducing distance-dependent seismicity sampling for b value analysis
      • Identifying and mapping nonlinear frequency-magnitude distributions
      • Resolving spatial b value heterogeneity along Californian faults
    30. Skewed orientation groups in scatter plots of earthquake fault plane solutions: Implications for extensional geometry at oceanic spreading centers (pages 2055–2067)

      G. S. Lister, H. Tkalčić, S. McClusky and M. A. Forster

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010706

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      Key Points

      • Oceanic spreading centres with geometry of extension as in Basin and Range
      • Friction on oceanic transform faults rotates the regional stress field
      • Ductile faulting in serpentinized mantle controls orientation of transforms
    31. Antigorite-induced seismic anisotropy and implications for deformation in subduction zones and the Tibetan Plateau (pages 2068–2099)

      Tongbin Shao, Shaocheng Ji, Yosuke Kondo, Katsuyoshi Michibayashi, Qian Wang, Zhiqin Xu, Shengsi Sun, Denis Marcotte and Matthew H. Salisbury

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010661

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      Key Points

      • New calibration for pressure dependence of antigorite seismic properties
      • Critical role of antigorite c axis fabric in the formation of seismic anisotropy
      • New interpretation of seismic anisotropy data from the Tibetan Plateau
    32. Effects of shear heating, slip-induced dilatancy and fluid flow on diversity of 1-D dynamic earthquake slip (pages 2100–2120)

      Takehito Suzuki and Teruo Yamashita

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010871

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      Key Points

      • Effects of heat, fluid and inelastic porosity on source process are modeled
      • Three nondimensional parameters, Su, Su' and Ta, generate slip diversity
      • A function G determining slip behavior completely is obtained analytically
    33. Moment tensor inversions of M ~ 3 earthquakes in the Geysers geothermal fields, California (pages 2121–2137)

      A. Guilhem, L. Hutchings, D. S. Dreger and L. R. Johnson

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010271

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      Key Points

      • Full moment tensor solutions are obtained for M3 earthquakes in Geysers, CA
      • Waveform and first motion provide complementary information on source
      • Results inform on source uncertainty and fluid interaction
    34. Receiver function constraints on crustal seismic velocities and partial melting beneath the Red Sea rift and adjacent regions, Afar Depression (pages 2138–2152)

      Cory A. Reed, Sattam Almadani, Stephen S. Gao, Ahmed A. Elsheikh, Solomon Cherie, Mohamed G. Abdelsalam, Allison K. Thurmond and Kelly H. Liu

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010719

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      Key Points

      • Strain in the lower crust is diffuse, while upper crustal strain is localized
      • The Red Sea rift axis likely migrated eastward gradually since the late Miocene
      • The lower crust beneath the Red Sea rift is decoupled from the upper crust
    35. LITHO1.0: An updated crust and lithospheric model of the Earth (pages 2153–2173)

      Michael E. Pasyanos, T. Guy Masters, Gabi Laske and Zhitu Ma

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010626

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      Key Points

      • We developed LITHO1.0—a 1° model of the crust and upper mantle
      • The model extends into the mantle to include the lithospheric lid
      • The model recovers surface wave dispersion over a wide frequency range
    36. Pn anisotropic tomography and dynamics under eastern Tibetan plateau (pages 2174–2198)

      Jianshe Lei, Yuan Li, Furen Xie, Jiwen Teng, Guangwei Zhang, Changqing Sun and Xiaohui Zha

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010847

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      Key Points

      • A new Pn anisotropic tomographic model is inferred under eastern Tibetan Plateau
      • The upper mantle material flow around eastern Tibet could affect eastern China
      • The mantle lithosphere could be mechanically decoupling below uppermost mantle
    37. A continuous record of intereruption velocity change at Mount St. Helens from coda wave interferometry (pages 2199–2214)

      A. J. Hotovec-Ellis, J. Gomberg, J. E. Vidale and K. C. Creager

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010742

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      Key Points

      • CWI measurements combined to create continuous history of velocity change
      • Velocities at MSH during this time period are dominated by seasonal effects
      • Nisqually earthquake produced decrease in velocity; no intrusion signal observed
    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seismological analysis of conduit dynamics in fragmentation experiments (pages 2215–2229)

      A. Arciniega-Ceballos, M. Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, B. Scheu, D. B. Dingwell and H. Delgado-Granados

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010646

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      Key Points

      • Characterization of conduit dynamics and source mechanisms
      • Physical processes imprint particular signatures allowing infer conduit dynamics
      • Simulated and volcanic explosions yield comparable signals at their own scales
    39. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Volcanic tremor masks its seismogenic source: Results from a study of noneruptive tremor recorded at Mount St. Helens, Washington (pages 2230–2251)

      Roger P. Denlinger and Seth C. Moran

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010698

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      Key Points

      • Volcanic tremor may result from cataclastic deformation along conduit wall
      • Tremor source completely masked by conduit resonance/waveguide phenomena
    40. Seismoacoustic signatures of fracture connectivity (pages 2252–2271)

      J. Germán Rubino, Tobias M. Müller, Luis Guarracino, Marco Milani and Klaus Holliger

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010567

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      Key Points

      • Wave-induced fluid flow effects in fractured rocks are numerically simulated
      • Strong changes in P wave properties due to fracture connectivity are observed
      • Seismic data are expected to contain key hydraulic information of fractured rocks
    41. Frictional response to velocity steps and 1-D fault nucleation under a state evolution law with stressing-rate dependence (pages 2272–2304)

      P. Bhattacharya and A. M. Rubin

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010671

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      Key Points

      • We explore a stressing rate-dependent state evolution law for rock friction
      • Size of stressing rate dependence controls whether the law mimics aging or slip
      • Stressing rate dependence influences style of nucleation on 1-D faults
    42. Geodesy and Gravity/Tectonophysics

      Rifting and magmatism in the northeastern South China Sea from wide-angle tomography and seismic reflection imaging (pages 2305–2323)

      Ryan Lester, Harm J. A. Van Avendonk, Kirk McIntosh, Luc Lavier, C.-S. Liu, T. K. Wang and F. Wu

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010639

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      Key Points

      • Seismic reflection and OBS refraction data in the South China Sea near Taiwan
      • Seismic images and velocity model indicate highly extended continental margin
      • Possible postrift magmatic modification of wide rifted margin
    43. Improving InSAR geodesy using Global Atmospheric Models (pages 2324–2341)

      Romain Jolivet, Piyush Shanker Agram, Nina Y. Lin, Mark Simons, Marie-Pierre Doin, Gilles Peltzer and Zhenhong Li

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010588

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      Key Points

      • We validate the prediction of atmospheric phase screen against independent data
      • We explore the effectiveness of such method on single interferograms
      • Such method improves time series reconstruction and velocity map estimation
    44. Influence of fault connectivity on slip rates in southern California: Potential impact on discrepancies between geodetic derived and geologic slip rates (pages 2342–2361)

      Justin W. Herbert, Michele L. Cooke and Scott T. Marshall

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010472

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      Key Points

      • Fault connectivity can account for portions of slip rate discrepancies in SoCal
      • Surface velocities are insensitive to fault connectivity at depth
      • Overconnecting faults reduces off-fault deformation within models
    45. In situ stress analysis in the northern Newark Basin: Implications for induced seismicity from CO2 injection (pages 2362–2374)

      Natalia V. Zakharova and David S. Goldberg

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010492

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      Key Points

      • Significant depth-dependent variation in breakout azimuth was observed
      • Shallow crust at the locality is critically stressed
      • Deeper reservoirs may allow >10 MPa increase in pore pressure
    46. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Origins of topography in the western U.S.: Mapping crustal and upper mantle density variations using a uniform seismic velocity model (pages 2375–2396)

      Will Levandowski, Craig H. Jones, Weisen Shen, Michael H. Ritzwoller and Vera Schulte-Pelkum

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010607

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      Key Points

      • Relief in the western Cordillera is dominantly crustal in origin
      • No dynamic topography is needed away from subduction zone
      • Gravitational potential energy anomalies encourage modern strain
    47. Visualization of space competition and plume formation with complex potentials for multiple source flows: Some examples and novel application to Chao lava flow (Chile) (pages 2397–2414)

      R. Weijermars

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010608

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      Key Points

      • The interaction of multiple source flows is modeled using complex potentials
      • Algorithms are given for lava flows, salt sheets, and oil migration
      • The Chao lava field model uses three major vents
    48. Magnetotelluric investigations of the lithosphere beneath the central Rae craton, mainland Nunavut, Canada (pages 2415–2439)

      Jessica E. Spratt, Thomas Skulski, James A. Craven, Alan G. Jones, David B. Snyder and Duygu Kiyan

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010221

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      Key Points

      • Resistivity structure of the lithosphere beneath the central Rae craton is modeled
      • Upper mantle regional resistivity variations beneath the central Rae craton are noted
      • Lower crustal conductivity interpreted as Archean metasedimentary rocks
    49. Soil gas distribution in the main coseismic surface rupture zone of the 1980, Ms = 6.9, Irpinia earthquake (southern Italy) (pages 2440–2461)

      Giancarlo Ciotoli, Sabina Bigi, Chiara Tartarello, Pietro Sacco, Salvatore Lombardi, Alessandra Ascione and Stefano Mazzoli

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010508

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      Key Points

      • Soil gas survey was performed in the Pecore Plain area
      • Soil gas data are processed with geostatistical methods
      • Soil gas data are correlated to the structural setting of the area
    50. Two-stage evolution of the Earth's mantle inferred from numerical simulation of coupled magmatism-mantle convection system with tectonic plates (pages 2462–2486)

      Masaki Ogawa

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010315

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      Key Points

      • Numerical simulations suggest that the mantle has evolved in two stages
      • Vigorous magmatism makes the lithosphere move chaotically on the earlier stage
      • Regular plate motion makes the mantle globally heterogeneous on the later stage
    51. Present-day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges (pages 2487–2503)

      F. Jouanne, A. Awan, A. Pêcher, A. Kausar, J. L. Mugnier, I. Khan, N. A. Khan and J. Van Melle

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010776

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      Key Points

      • Key GPS data for the NW Himalaya
      • Better understanding of Nanga Parbat tectonics
      • Identification of the Indus-Kohistan seismic zone as the locking zone of the MHT
    52. Evaluation of glacier changes in high-mountain Asia based on 10 year GRACE RL05 models (pages 2504–2517)

      Shuang Yi and Wenke Sun

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010860

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      Key Points

      • A new glacier change results from 10-yr GRACE RL05 models
      • The explanation of the positive signals in the inner Tibetan Plateau
      • A 5 year undulation is found in Pamir and Karakoram glaciers changing signal
    53. Is there a discrepancy between geological and geodetic slip rates along the San Andreas Fault System? (pages 2518–2538)

      Xiaopeng Tong, Bridget Smith-Konter and David T. Sandwell

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010765

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      Key Points

      • Invert for slip rate of San Andreas Fault using 3-D earthquake cycle model
      • Viscoelasticity can explain discrepancy between geologic and geodetic slip rate
      • Infer 60 km elastic plate over viscoelastic half-space (1019 Pa s)
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