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Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012)

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012)

September 2011

Volume 116, Issue C9

Currently known as: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

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      Impact of biogeochemical processes and environmental factors on the calcium carbonate saturation state in the Circumpolar Flaw Lead in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic Ocean

      Melissa Chierici, Agneta Fransson, Bruno Lansard, Lisa A. Miller, Alfonso Mucci, Elizabeth Shadwick, Helmuth Thomas, J.-E. Tremblay and Tim N. Papakyriakou

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007184

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      Key Points

      • Biological processes dominate the seasonal variability in CaCO 3 saturation state
      • Unique data set with full annual cycle of biogeochemical data
      • Aragonite undersaturation due to physical upwelling
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      Barium and carbon fluxes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

      Helmuth Thomas, Elizabeth Shadwick, Frank Dehairs, Bruno Lansard, Alfonso Mucci, Jacques Navez, Yves Gratton, Friederike Prowe, Melissa Chierici, Agneta Fransson, Tim N. Papakyriakou, Erika Sternberg, Lisa A. Miller, Jean-Éric Tremblay and Christophe Monnin

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007120

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      Key Points

      • Seasonal cycle of Ba is established
      • Carbon export production is estimated
      • Balanced carbon budget
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      On the scaling laws derived from ice beacon trajectories in the southern Beaufort Sea during the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead study, 2007–2008

      J. V. Lukovich, D. G. Babb and D. G. Barber

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007049

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      Key Points

      • Existence of distinct scaling laws for zonal and meridional absolute dispersion
      • Definitive zonal and meridional timescales for sea ice in the Beaufort Sea
      • Ice-atmosphere interactions in Beaufort Sea during 2007–2008 winter
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      Distribution and microbial metabolism of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethylsulfide during the 2007 Arctic ice minimum

      M. Luce, M. Levasseur, M. G. Scarratt, S. Michaud, S.-J. Royer, R. Kiene, C. Lovejoy, M. Gosselin, M. Poulin, Y. Gratton and M. Lizotte

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006914

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      Key Points

      • Low but significant DMSP microbial uptake takes place in late fall in the Arctic
      • Microbial DMSP uptake appears to be limited by bacterial production
      • DMS production is low but significant under ice-free conditions in late fall
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      Spatiotemporal variations of dissolved organic carbon and carbon monoxide in first-year sea ice in the western Canadian Arctic

      Guisheng Song, Huixiang Xie, Cyril Aubry, Yong Zhang, Michel Gosselin, C. J. Mundy, Benoît Philippe and Tim N. Papakyriakou

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006867

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      Key Points

      • DOC and CO are enriched in the bottom of Arctic landfast and drifting sea ice
      • DOC production is a significant fraction of ice algal production
      • Sea ice is a source of CO to the atmosphere
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      Carbonate system evolution at the Arctic Ocean surface during autumn freeze-up

      Lisa A. Miller, Gauthier Carnat, Brent G. T. Else, Nes Sutherland and Timothy N. Papakyriakou

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007143

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      Key Points

      • New sea ice can release CO2 to the air or water
      • Brine analyses do not appear to be effective for determining CO2 in sea ice
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      On the variability of the Mediterranean Outflow Water in the North Atlantic from 1948 to 2006

      Alexandra Bozec, M. Susan Lozier, Eric P. Chassignet and George R. Halliwell

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007191

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      Key Points

      • MOW variability is due to circulation changes in the North Atlantic
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      Non-stationary wave height climate modeling and simulation

      S. Solari and M. A. Losada

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007101

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      Key Points

      • A non-stationary mixture univariate distribution for modeling state variables
      • A multivariate copula-based model for the time evolution of the state variables
      • Application and verification of new long-term time series simulation methodology
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      Distribution of the thermohaline characteristics in the Aegean Sea related to water mass formation processes (2005–2006 winter surveys)

      Vassilios D. Vervatis, Sarantis S. Sofianos and Alexander Theocharis

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006868

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      Key Points

      • Aegean thermohaline cells coupled due to local processes or water mass intrusion
      • Aegean pre/post-EMT state
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      Estimation of net surface shortwave radiation over the tropical Indian Ocean using geostationary satellite observations: Algorithm and validation

      Naveen R. Shahi, Pradeep K. Thapliyal, Rashmi Sharma, Pradip K. Pal and Abhijit Sarkar

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007105

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      Key Points

      • An improved technique to estimate net shortwave radiation over ocean surface
      • Accuracy is better than existing data sets when compared with buoy observations
      • Simple algorithm that can provide near-real-time SWR products
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      Diurnal heat balance for the northern Monterey Bay inner shelf

      S. H. Suanda, J. A. Barth and C. B. Woodson

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006894

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      Key Points

      • Diurnal temperature fluctuations in northern Monterey Bay are sea breeze driven
      • Heating is due to along-shelf advection of a temperature gradient
      • Cooling is due to cross-shelf heat flux
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      Global rate and spectral characteristics of internal gravity wave generation by geostrophic flow over topography

      R. B. Scott, J. A. Goff, A. C. Naveira Garabato and A. J. G. Nurser

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007005

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      Key Points

      • Lee wave generation accounts for about one half of mechanical energy dissipation
      • Lee waves are generated by topography with wavelengths less than 5 km
      • Lee waves are generated mostly in the Southern Ocean
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      Differences between two estimates of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the Atlantic Ocean

      A. Santorelli, R. T. Pinker, A. Bentamy, K. B. Katsaros, W. M. Drennan, A. M. Mestas-Nuñez and J. A. Carton

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006927

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      Key Points

      • Turbulent air-sea fluxes can be obtained globally quite well
      • Uncertainties in two methods compared are still large
      • Better sampling and new satellite instruments show promise for improvements
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      Evaluation of several model error schemes in the EnKF assimilation: Applied to Argo profiles in the Pacific Ocean

      Ziwang Deng, Youmin Tang and Howard J. Freeland

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC006942

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      Key Points

      • Additive inflation is the key for maintaining ensemble spread
      • Bias correction schemes have effect only within short initial assimilation period
      • IAU reduces the impact of bias correction on data assimilation
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      A numerical investigation of convective sedimentation

      Patrick J. Snyder and Tian-Jian Hsu

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006792

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      Key Points

      • This study investigates convective sedimentation by means of a numerical model
      • Four distinct flow regimes of convective sedimentation are revealed
      • Numerical study presented here can provide a guideline for future field work
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      Modulation of SST, SSS over northern Bay of Bengal on ISO time scale

      Suryachandra A. Rao, Subodh K. Saha, Samir Pokhrel, Damodaran Sundar, Ashish R. Dhakate, Somnath Mahapatra, Sabeer Ali, Hemantkumar S. Chaudhari, P. Shreeram, Suneel Vasimalla, A. S. Srikanth and R. R. V. Suresh

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006804

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      Key Points

      • Advection processes dominate the salinity/SST over Bay of Bengal during monsoon
      • Intraseasonal variation of salinity/SST are linked with monsoon ISO over land
      • Lagged response of salinity may explain post monsoon warming of Bay of Bengal
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      Diurnal upwelling resonantly driven by sea breezes around an Adriatic island

      Mirko Orlić, Gordana Beg Paklar, Vlado Dadić, Nenad Leder, Hrvoje Mihanović, Miroslava Pasarić and Zoran Pasarić

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC006955

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      Key Points

      • Sea breezes resonantly drive internal coastal waves around an Adriatic island
      • The waves support the occurrence of large-amplitude thermocline variability
      • The diurnal upwelling influences primary production and benthic organisms
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      Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

      Andrew F. Thompson and Kelvin J. Richards

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006749

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      Key Points

      • Eddy forcing of the mean flow leads to unsteady Southern Ocean jet behavior
      • Topography contols Reynolds stress structure, jet localization and variability
      • Low frequency jet variability impacts potential vorticity distributions
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      Wintertime CO2 fluxes in an Arctic polynya using eddy covariance: Evidence for enhanced air-sea gas transfer during ice formation

      B. G. T. Else, T. N. Papakyriakou, R. J. Galley, W. M. Drennan, L. A. Miller and H. Thomas

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006760

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      Key Points

      • High rates of CO2 exchange were observed over flaw leads using eddy covariance
      • Enhanced gas exchange is hypothesized to be due to ice formation in leads
      • Enhanced gas exchange is important to annual air-sea CO2 budgets of this region
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      Upwelling relaxation and estuarine plumes

      Shivanesh Rao, James Pringle and Jay Austin

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006739

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      Key Points

      • The upwelled front was not observed to return to shore during wind relaxation
      • A nearshore plume can stop an upwelled front from returning to the coast
      • There is a nearshore region close to estuary where only the plume dominates
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      The Azores Current System from a meridional section at 24.5°W

      I. Comas-Rodríguez, A. Hernández-Guerra, E. Fraile-Nuez, A. Martínez-Marrero, V. M. Benítez-Barrios, M. D. Pérez-Hernández and P. Vélez-Belchí

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007129

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      Key Points

      • Hydrographic data are used to define and quantify the Azores Current System
      • The AzC and AzCC are defined, spanning the surface and intermediate waters
      • The net flow across the meridional 24.5°W section transports 8.4 Sv eastward
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      Eddy stirring in the Southern Ocean

      A. C. Naveira Garabato, R. Ferrari and K. L. Polzin

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006818

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      Key Points

      • Jets in the ACC are generally barriers to mixing in their upper layers
      • This can be interpreted as a result of eddy mean flow interaction
      • Jets occasionally become leaky in association with sharp mean flow meanders
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      Decadal biogeochemical changes in the subtropical Indian Ocean associated with Subantarctic Mode Water

      M. Álvarez, T. Tanhua, H. Brix, C. Lo Monaco, N. Metzl, E. L. McDonagh and H. L. Bryden

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006475

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      Key Points

      • Scarce studies about biogeochemical changes
      • High-quality databases
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      The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current

      Yevgeny Aksenov, Vladimir V. Ivanov, A. J. George Nurser, Sheldon Bacon, Igor V. Polyakov, Andrew C. Coward, Alberto C. Naveira-Garabato and Agnieszka Beszczynska-Moeller

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006637

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      Key Points

      • A new branch of the Arctic Boundary Current is investigated
      • The role of this current for Arctic halocline dynamics is examined
      • Variability and driving mechanisms of the current are analysed
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      An inverse modeling approach to estimating phytoplankton pigment concentrations from phytoplankton absorption spectra

      John R. Moisan, Tiffany A. H. Moisan and Matthew A. Linkswiler

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006786

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      Key Points

      • Phytoplankton absorption spectra can be modeled using inversion techniques
      • A new model for phytoplankton absorption spectra has high correlations (>.95)
      • There is a critical need to improved pigment absorption spectra
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      Seasonal and inter-annual changes in the surface chlorophyll of the South China Sea

      Artur P. Palacz, Huijie Xue, Carrie Armbrecht, Caiyun Zhang and Fei Chai

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007064

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      Key Points

      • There are decadal scale physical-biological interactions in the marginal seas
      • Long-term changes in chlorophyll in the South China Sea are linked to ENSO
      • HHT improves the temporal analysis of nonlinear oceanographic time series data
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      Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes

      Matthew T. Reagan, George J. Moridis, Scott M. Elliott and Mathew Maltrud

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007189

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      Key Points

      • Seafloor warming can dissociate hydrates and cause methane release
      • Shallow hydrates alone may contribute to significant release
      • Methane release may occur under a wide range of sediment conditions
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      Evaluation of trajectory modeling in different dynamic regions using normalized cumulative Lagrangian separation

      Yonggang Liu and Robert H. Weisberg

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006837

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      Key Points

      • A new skill score is proposed to evaluate trajectory model
      • It correctly assesses the relative HYCOM performance in Loop Current and shelf regions
      • It is especially useful in sparse drifter trajectories
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      A numerical investigation of lutocline dynamics and saturation of fine sediment in the oscillatory boundary layer

      Celalettin E. Ozdemir, Tian-Jian Hsu and S. Balachandar

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007185

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      Key Points

      • The 3D simulations of fine sediment transport in the wave boundary layer reveal
      • The carrying capacity of sediment in wave boundary layer is investigated
      • A two-parameter flow regime map for state of muddy seabed is drawn for muddy sea
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      Secular trends in Arctic Ocean net primary production

      Kevin R. Arrigo and Gert L. van Dijken

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007151

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      Key Points

      • Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has declined
      • Primary production in the Arctic Ocean has increased
      • This increase in production could continue in the future
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      Ocean circulation for the Indonesian seas driven by tides and atmospheric forcings: Comparison to observational data

      A. R. Kartadikaria, Y. Miyazawa, S. M. Varlamov and K. Nadaoka

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007196

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      Key Points

      • Inclusion of explicit tide forcing to high resolution regional circulation model
      • Modeling internal tides in Celebes Sea
      • The importance of horizontal mixing besides vertical mixing in the region
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      Effects of wave exposure on circulation in a temperate reef environment

      Graham Symonds, Liejun Zhong and Nick A. Mortimer

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006658

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      Key Points

      • Wave forcing affects currents several kilometers from reefs
      • Numerical model shows good qualitative agreement with observations
      • Over reefs radiation stress plus pressure gradient balanced by bottom friction
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      Modern dirty sea ice characteristics and sources: The role of anchor ice

      Dennis A. Darby, Wesley B. Myers, Martin Jakobsson and Ignatius Rigor

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006675

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      Key Points

      • Anchor ice can be identified by several characteristics listed in the paper
      • Provenance using XRD mineral abundance is difficult
      • Anchor ice is more extensive and transport more sediment than thought
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      Air-sea CO2 fluxes along the coast of Chile: From CO2 outgassing in central northern upwelling waters to CO2 uptake in southern Patagonian fjords

      Rodrigo Torres, Silvio Pantoja, Naomi Harada, Humberto E. González, Giovanni Daneri, Máximo Frangopulos, José A. Rutllant, Carlos M. Duarte, Sergio Rúiz-Halpern, Eva Mayol and Masao Fukasawa

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006344

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      Key Points

      • Strong CO2 outgassing at the coastal upwelling of Chile
      • Strong CO2 uptake at the fjord region of Chile
      • Freshwater inputs to the Pacific Patagonia coastal ocean enhance CO2 uptake
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      Coastal cliff ground motions from local ocean swell and infragravity waves in southern California

      Adam P. Young, Peter N. Adams, William C. O'Reilly, Reinhard E. Flick and R. T. Guza

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007175

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      Key Points

      • Local sea swell and infragravity waves generate coastal cliff motion
      • Cliff motion and cliff base water levels are coherent and oscillate in phase
      • Ocean-generated cliff motion occurs continuously even without direct wave impact
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      Seasonal heat balance in the upper 100 m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

      Julien Jouanno, Frédéric Marin, Yves du Penhoat, Julio Sheinbaum and Jean-Marc Molines

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006912

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      Key Points

      • Heat budget in a model of the tropical Atlantic
      • Key role of vertical mixing for equatorial SST seasonal cycle
      • Surface currents drive the shear and the turbulent heat flux
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      Ocean wave sources of seismic noise

      Fabrice Ardhuin, Eleonore Stutzmann, Martin Schimmel and Anne Mangeney

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC006952

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      Key Points

      • A full model of seismic noise is proposed and verified
      • Noise-generating sea states are classified
      • Wave model accuracy for directional parameters is discussed
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      Intraseasonal vertical velocity variation caused by the equatorial wave in the central equatorial Indian Ocean

      Takanori Horii, Yukio Masumoto, Iwao Ueki, S. Prasanna Kumar and Keisuke Mizuno

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007081

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      Key Points

      • Intraseasonal vertical velocity variation investigated using observation data
      • Upwelling event in the central equatorial Indian Ocean
      • Structure of the quasi-biweekly mixed Rossby-gravity wave in the ocean
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      Resonant amplification of subinertial tides in a submarine canyon

      N. C. Swart, S. E. Allen and B. J. W. Greenan

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC006990

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      Key Points

      • Present and analyze new data from a moored array in The Gully submarine canyon
      • Develop an analytical model for resonating subinertial tides in a canyon
      • Compare the analytical model with observed results from the moored array
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      Impact of horizontal spreading on light propagation in melt pond covered seasonal sea ice in the Canadian Arctic

      Jens K. Ehn, C. J. Mundy, David G. Barber, Haakon Hop, Andrea Rossnagel and Jeremy Stewart

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006908

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      Key Points

      • Optical properties of melting sea ice
      • Horizontal propagation of light affects sea ice transmittance
      • Progression of flooded surface to distinct melt ponds

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