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Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012)

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012)

March 2012

Volume 117, Issue C3

Currently known as: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

    1. You have free access to this content
      Scatterometer and reanalysis wind products over the western tropical Indian Ocean

      C. Collins, C. J. C. Reason and J. C. Hermes

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007531

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      Key Points

      • Winds over the western Indian Ocean have prominent semiannual and annual cycles
      • Strength and duration of large-scale wind features vary between wind products
      • Local-scale wind features are better resolved by QuikSCAT scatterometer data
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      A note on trapped Gerstner waves

      Jan Erik H. Weber

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007776

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      Key Points

      • Exact solutions in the form of coastally trapped Gerstner waves
      • For a vertical wall the Gerstner edge wave becomes a coastal Kelvin wave
      • Solutions for all slopes for waves with coast to the right
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      Bottom dissipation of subinertial currents at the Atlantic zonal boundaries

      C. J. Wright, R. B. Scott, B. K. Arbic and D. F. Furnival

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007702

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      Key Points

      • BBL drag is a significant dissipation mechanism
      • It primarily acts in the shallow western boundary
      • Up to 60% of the wind input is dissipated this way
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      Pairwise scale space comparison of time series with application to climate research

      F. Godtliebsen, L. Holmström, A. Miettinen, P. Erästö, D. V. Divine and N. Koc

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007546

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      Key Points

      • Unevenly sampled climate time series are analyzed in different time scales
      • Pairwise comparisons add to information gained from single time series alone
      • Frequentist and Bayesian approaches produce reassuringly similar results
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      Stochastic analysis of tsunami runup due to heterogeneous coseismic slip and dispersion

      F. Løvholt, G. Pedersen, S. Bazin, D. Kühn, R. E. Bredesen and C. Harbitz

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007616

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      Key Points

      • Stochastic earthquake slip variation leads to variability in tsunami runup
      • Nonhydrostatic effects such as dispersion may reduce the runup uncertainty
      • Characteristics of the seabed displacement may reflect the tsunami potential
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      Influence of atmospheric circulation on turbulent air-sea heat fluxes over the Mediterranean Sea during winter

      Vassilis P. Papadopoulos, Harilaos Kontoyiannis, Simón Ruiz and Nikolaos Zarokanellos

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007455

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      Key Points

      • The influence of the atmospheric circulation on the turbulent fluxes
      • Turbulent air-sea heat fluxes regime in the Mediterranean Sea during winter
      • The mechanisms affecting the climatic regime of the turbulent fluxes
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      Mean Atlantic meridional overturning circulation across 26.5°N from eddy-resolving simulations compared to observations

      X. Xu, W. J. Schmitz Jr., H. E. Hurlburt and P. J. Hogan

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007586

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      Key Points

      • Mean AMOC in an eddy-resolving simulation generally agrees with data along 26N
      • Model results help interpret the mean structure of the AMOC
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      Observations of a mode-2 nonlinear internal wave on the northern Heng-Chun Ridge south of Taiwan

      S. R. Ramp, Y. J. Yang, D. B. Reeder and F. L. Bahr

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007662

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      Key Points

      • New observations of mode-2 nonlinear internal waves near the source
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      The role of air-sea fluxes in Subantarctic Mode Water formation

      James W. Holte, Lynne D. Talley, Teresa K. Chereskin and Bernadette M. Sloyan

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007798

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      Key Points

      • Air-sea fluxes drive deepening of SAMW mixed layers
      • Wind forcing affects SAMW formation
      • Initial stratification and heat content determine SAMW properties
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      A Lagrangian stochastic model of surf zone drifter dispersion

      Matthew S. Spydell and Falk Feddersen

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007701

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      Key Points

      • Observed surf zone drifter dispersion is consistent with a stochastic model
      • Modeled cross-shore dispersion is nonmonotonic due to the shoreline
      • The observed alongshore dispersion is due to shear dispersion
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      Typhoon-induced phytoplankton blooms and primary productivity increase in the western North Pacific subtropical ocean

      I.-I. Lin

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007626

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      Key Points

      • Typhoon-induced production contributes little to global ocean CO2 uptake
      • Only 18% of typhoons can induce blooms in the western North Pacific
      • Exisiting results based on single event can lead to bias in contribution
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      Impacts of ocean acidification in naturally variable coral reef flat ecosystems

      Emily C. Shaw, Ben I. McNeil and Bronte Tilbrook

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007655

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      Key Points

      • Coral reef community calcification is related to seawater carbonate chemistry
      • We show this using in situ data, giving insight into ocean acidification impacts
      • We predict end-century calcification will be 55% lower than the preindustrial value
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      Assimilation of pCO2 data into a global coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model

      J. While, I. Totterdell and M. Martin

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006815

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      Key Points

      • A method for pCO2 assimilation is described
      • In situ pCO2 data are assimilated into a coupled physical-biogeochemical model
      • Despite limited data, assimilation significantly improves oceanic pCO2
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      Characteristics of bubble clouds at various wind speeds

      Magdalena D. Anguelova and Pablo Huq

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007442

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      Key Points

      • Lab study of bubble cloud dimensions and void fraction for various wind speeds
      • Temporal and spatial variations of the bubble cloud characteristics
      • Kinematics and dynamics of bubble clouds
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      Acoustic-gravity waves interacting with the shelf break

      Usama Kadri and Michael Stiassnie

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007674

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      Key Points

      • The bottom pressure on both sides of the break is of the same order of magnitude
      • The bottom pressure prevails away from the shelf break
      • The bottom pressure is probably sufficiently large for measurement purposes
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      Current separation and upwelling over the southeast shelf of Vietnam in the South China Sea

      Changsheng Chen, Zhigang Lai, Robert C. Beardsley, Qichun Xu, Huichan Lin and Nguyen Trung Viet

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007150

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      Key Points

      • New physical mechanism for current separation and upwelling off Vietnam
      • Current separation can be formed by tidal rectification and river discharge
      • Wind is not a necessary condition to form the current separation
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      Nonlinear interaction between rain- and wind-induced air-water gas exchange

      E. L. Harrison, F. Veron, D. T. Ho, M. C. Reid, P. Orton and W. R. McGillis

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007693

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      Key Points

      • Rain and wind interact nonlinearly to enhance air-sea gas exchange
      • Rain effects are seen at lower wind speeds and disappear at higher speeds
      • The limiting parameter is the ratio of the kinetic energy flux of rain to wind
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      Parameterizing individual effects of shear and stratification on mixing in stably stratified shear flows

      Kenji Shimizu

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007514

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      Key Points

      • Parameterized individual effects of shear and stratification on mixing
      • Based on lab/numerical experiments but the results are comparable to field data
      • Proposed how turbulence intensity can be included in Ri-based parameterizations
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      Wind-driven modification of the Alaskan coastal current

      E. L. Shroyer and A. J. Plueddemann

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007650

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      Key Points

      • Detail the wind-forced, across-shelf response of complex coastal systems
      • Modification by winds affects stability and hydrographic structure of currents
      • Novel use of a REMUS AUV in a region where shallow measurements are difficult
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      Channels-tidal flat sediment exchange: The channel spillover mechanism

      Giulio Mariotti and Sergio Fagherazzi

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007378

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      Key Points

      • Channel-tidal flat transverse circulation explained with a simple barotropic model
      • Flux of sediment from channel to tidal flat during flood, vice versa during ebb
      • Sediments originated from the channel explain the turbid tidal edge
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      Subtidal circulation on the Alabama shelf during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

      Brian Dzwonkowski and Kyeong Park

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007664

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      Key Points

      • Seasonal flow structure indicates offshore transport near estuary mouth
      • Identified deviations from Ekman coastal circulation at synoptic time scale
      • Flow interactions with bathymetry and density field drive spatial variability
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      Where can we find a seasonal cycle of the Atlantic water temperature within the Arctic Basin?

      Camille Lique and Michael Steele

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007612

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      Key Points

      • Seasonality of Atlantic water in the Actic Ocean is small
      • AW seasonality is advected from Atlantic inflow
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      Quality assessment of a satellite altimetry data product in the Nordic, Barents, and Kara seas

      Denis L. Volkov and M.-Isabelle Pujol

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007557

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      Key Points

      • Provides the first validation of an altimetry data product in high-latitude seas
      • Shows a satisfactory agreement between altimetry, tide gauge, and drifter data
      • Highlights remaining issues in data quality
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      Seasonality of coastal upwelling off central and northern California: New insights, including temporal and spatial variability

      M. García-Reyes and J. L. Largier

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007629

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      Key Points

      • Three seasons defined from coastal winds: upwelling, relaxation, and storm
      • Coastal winds driven by large-scale winds and modified by local topography
      • Upwelling variability associated to winds and basin-scale ocean conditions
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      Effects of stencil width on surface ocean geostrophic velocity and vorticity estimation from gridded satellite altimeter data

      Brian K. Arbic, Robert B. Scott, Dudley B. Chelton, James G. Richman and Jay F. Shriver

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007367

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      Key Points

      • Geostrophic flows estimated from altimeter data are impacted by stencil width
      • Stencil width impacts analysis of models as well as data
      • Precise estimates of geostrophic velocities require wider stencils
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      Poleward coastal jets induced by westerlies in the Bay of Biscay

      Francois Batifoulier, Pascal Lazure and Philippe Bonneton

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007658

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      Key Points

      • New observations highlighted coastal jet along the French Aquitaine coast
      • Jets were triggered by few days of intense westerlies which are cross-shore
      • A modelling approach was conducted to identify the physical processes involved
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      An updated examination of the Luzon Strait transport

      Yi-Chia Hsin, Chau-Ron Wu and Shenn-Yu Chao

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007714

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      Key Points

      • Process experiments and relative importance of driving forcing
      • Predominant forcing and monsoon winds
      • The LST from an inflow to an outflow of up to 4 Sv without wind forcing
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      Shelf-basin exchange times of Arctic surface waters estimated from 228Th/228Ra disequilibrium

      M. Rutgers van der Loeff, P. Cai, I. Stimac, D. Bauch, C. Hanfland, T. Roeske and S. B. Moran

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007478

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      Key Points

      • 228Ra on Arctic shelves may not be sufficiently constant to serve as age marker
      • 228Th ingrowth provides independent age information
      • High 228Th/228Ra age infers a recirculating gyre above the Gakkel Ridge
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      Tide transformation in the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain) and process-based zonation

      M. Díez-Minguito, A. Baquerizo, M. Ortega-Sánchez, G. Navarro and M. A. Losada

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007344

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      Key Points

      • The prominent tidal reflection at the head controls estuarine morphohydrodynamics
      • The estuary is divided into 3 stretches based on the dominant tidal processes
      • Three years of hydrodynamic data from 29 moorings were analyzed
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      Observations of the vertical structure of turbulent oscillatory boundary layers above fixed roughness beds using a prototype wideband coherent Doppler profiler: 1. The oscillatory component of the flow

      Alex E. Hay, Len Zedel, Richard Cheel and Jeremy Dillon

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007113

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      Key Points

      • Lab tests of a new wideband acoustic Doppler profiler developed for field use
      • Able to resolve vertical profiles of the velocity magnitude and phase in the BBL
      • Magnitude and phase profiles comparable to previous measurements using LDA
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      Impact of Caribbean cyclones on the detachment of Loop Current anticyclones

      Gabriela Athié, Julio Candela, José Ochoa and Julio Sheinbaum

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007090

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      Key Points

      • Long-term measurements series in the Caribbean and Loop Current
      • LC releases associated with an eastward shift of the Yucatan Current
      • Western Caribbean circulation to the Loop Current eddy detachment
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      Anomalous intraseasonal events in the thermocline ridge region of Southern Tropical Indian Ocean and their regional impacts

      A. Jayakumar and C. Gnanaseelan

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007357

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      Key Points

      • The 2001-2002 SST variability is due to unusually longer period MJO forcing
      • Surface heat flux and entrainment in resonance contributed to strong cooling
      • The 2001-2002 cooling events lead to seasonal changes such as drought over India
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      Measuring currents in a coastal inlet by advection of turbulent eddies in airborne optical imagery

      J. P. Dugan and C. C. Piotrowski

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007600

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      Key Points

      • Identification of turbulent-sediment eddies as flow tracers
      • Algorithm for retrieving dense current vector field
      • New method for rapid data collection of estuarine currents
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      Observations of the vertical structure of turbulent oscillatory boundary layers above fixed roughness using a prototype wideband coherent Doppler profiler: 2. Turbulence and stress

      Alex E. Hay, Len Zedel, Richard Cheel and Jeremy Dillon

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007114

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      Key Points

      • New Doppler profiler yields three independent estimates of bottom stress in OBL
      • Defect stress agrees with previous results, law-of-the-wall 50% high
      • Reynolds stress low by a factor of 4 compared to Sleath's factor of 5 to 10
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      Airborne lidar measurements of wave energy dissipation in a coral reef lagoon system

      Zhi-Cheng Huang, Benjamin D. Reineman, Luc Lenain, W. Kendall Melville and Jason H. Middleton

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007203

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      Key Points

      • Wave energy flux measured by airborne lidar
      • Flux gradients give wave energy dissipation
      • Wave energy dissipation may infer turbulent dissipation
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      Wind, waves, and acoustic background levels at Station ALOHA

      Fred K. Duennebier, Roger Lukas, Eva-Marie Nosal, Jérome Aucan and Robert A. Weller

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007267

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      Key Points

      • Ocean surface waves are responsible for the acoustic background at the ocean
      • Deep-ocean sound below 0.4 Hz is seismic in origin
      • Ocean sound level below 2 Hz is strongly influenced by wave directionality
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      Dissipation of wave energy and turbulence in a shallow coral reef lagoon

      Zhi-Cheng Huang, Luc Lenain, W. Kendall Melville, Jason H. Middleton, Benjamin Reineman, Nicholas Statom and Ryan M. McCabe

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007202

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      Key Points

      • Correlation between surface wave dissipation and turbulent dissipation in the lagoon
      • Wave dissipation can be described by a spectral wave-frictional model
      • Turbulence dissipation can be inferred from wave measurements
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      Use of vertical temperature gradients for prediction of tidal flat sediment characteristics

      Jennifer L. Miselis, K. Todd Holland, Allen H. Reed and Andrei Abelev

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007566

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      Key Points

      • Vertical temperature gradients in sediments can distinguish sands from clays
      • Mixtures of sands and clays are more difficult to differentiate
      • Calibrated material thermal conductivity improved calculated bulk conductivity
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      Multimodality of a particle size distribution of cohesive suspended particulate matters in a coastal zone

      Byung Joon Lee, Michael Fettweis, Erik Toorman and Fred J. Molz

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007552

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      Key Points

      • Decomposition of the multimodal PSDs to the subordinate unimodal lognormal PSDs
      • Investigation on particle/floc dynamics in a coastal zone
      • Identification of primary particles, flocculi, microflocs, and macroflocs
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      Interannual variations of Atlantic tropical instability waves

      Renellys C. Perez, Rick Lumpkin, William E. Johns, Gregory R. Foltz and Verena Hormann

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007584

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      Key Points

      • SST and SLA metrics are developed for interannual Atlantic TIW variability
      • For off-equatorial TIWs, SLA and SST metrics agree well with one another
      • Off-equatorial interannual TIW variance attributed to barotropic instabilities
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      Analysis of four-dimensional variational state estimation of the Hawaiian waters

      D. Matthews, B. S. Powell and I. Janeković

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007575

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      Key Points

      • State estimation of Hawaii using all available observations
      • Examination of ocean changes in response to SST
      • Analysis of baroclinic tides, inertial energy, and mesoscale variability
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      Application of a data-assimilation model to variability of Pacific sardine spawning and survivor habitats with ENSO in the California Current System

      Hajoon Song, Arthur J. Miller, Sam McClatchie, Edward D. Weber, Karen M. Nieto and David M. Checkley Jr.

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007302

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      Key Points

      • We diagnosed the ENSO-related different Pacific sardine egg distribution
      • During La Nina, strong offshore transport expanded spawning habitat
      • During El Nino, the quality of the spawning habitat was better
    43. You have free access to this content
      Sea ice salinity and structure: A winter time series of salinity and its distribution

      A. J. Gough, A. R. Mahoney, P. J. Langhorne, M. J. M. Williams and T. G. Haskell

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007527

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      Key Points

      • Sea ice salinity and growth rate data and desalination
      • Sea ice structure affects salinity
      • A statistical distribution of first-year sea ice salinity
    44. You have free access to this content
      Optical properties of sea ice in Liaodong Bay, China

      Zhantang Xu, Yuezhong Yang, Guifen Wang, Wenxi Cao, Zhijun Li and Zhaohua Sun

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006756

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      Key Points

      • Albedo of dirty sea ice
      • A new method to calculate the absorption coefficient of dirty sea ice
      • A new method to calculate the scattering coefficient of dirty sea ice
    45. You have free access to this content
      Penetration of nonlinear Rossby eddies into South China Sea evidenced by cruise data

      Jianyu Hu, Quanan Zheng, Zhenyu Sun and Chang-Kuo Tai

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007525

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      Key Points

      • Penetration of nonlinear Rossby eddies through Kuroshio and the Luzon Strait
      • Evidenced by high-salinity subsurface water observed in the northern SCS
      • Significant impact on the SCS circulation
    46. You have free access to this content
      Tidal asymmetry and velocity skew over tidal flats and shallow channels within a macrotidal river delta

      N. J. Nidzieko and D. K. Ralston

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007384

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      Key Points

      • Incident asymmetry can lead to velocity skew
      • Small phase lags lead to ebb dominance
      • Ebb dominance due to fluvial discharge is mitigated by baroclinicity
    47. You have free access to this content
      A simple differential diffusion model to account for the discrepancy between 223Ra- and 224Ra-based eddy diffusivities

      Scott L. Stachelhaus and S. Bradley Moran

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007500

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      Key Points

      • 224Ra-based K values exceed 223Ra-based diffusivities
      • Differential diffusion explains the difference between 223Ra- and 224Ra-based K
      • Many tracers may overestimate K for conservative components
    48. You have free access to this content
      Interannual variability of Great Lakes ice cover and its relationship to NAO and ENSO

      Xuezhi Bai, Jia Wang, Cynthia Sellinger, Anne Clites and Raymond Assel

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006932

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      Key Points

      • NAO and ENSO impact Great Lakes ice cover
      • The nonlinear and asymmetric effects of ENSO on Great Lakes ice
      • Nino3.4 index and prediction of GL ice cover
    49. You have free access to this content
      Seasonal variability of water mass distribution in the southeastern Beaufort Sea determined by total alkalinity and δ18O

      Bruno Lansard, Alfonso Mucci, Lisa A. Miller, Robie W. Macdonald and Yves Gratton

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007299

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      Key Points

      • Total alkalinity and oxygen isotopes are used as tracers of freshwater inputs
      • Describe the use of an optimum multiparameter analyis
      • Assess the variability of water mass distribution during a full year study

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