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Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012)

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012)

August 2012

Volume 117, Issue C8

Currently known as: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

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      α-HCH enantiomer fraction (EF): A novel approach to calculate the ventilation age of water in the Arctic Ocean?

      Monika Pućko, Robie W. Macdonald, David G. Barber, Bruno Rosenberg, Yves Gratton and Gary A. Stern

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008130

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      Key Points

      • HCH EF can be used to estimate ventilation age of water in the Arctic Ocean
      • HCH EF tracer age is most accurate when applied to cores of water masses
      • Conceptually, EFs of many substances can provide ventilation age estimates
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      Trends of upper-layer circulation in the South China Sea during 1959–2008

      Haiyuan Yang and Lixin Wu

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008068

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      Key Points

      • The upper-layer circulation in the SCS has been weakened in winter
      • Weakening of the monsoon results in the weakening of circulation in winter
      • An eastward retreat of the anti-cyclonic Kuroshio loop is found
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      A winter warm pool southwest of Hainan Island due to the orographic wind wake

      Jiaxun Li, Guihua Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, Ren Zhang and Zhenyu Sun

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008189

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      Key Points

      • A winter warm pool in Beibu Gulf is found first time with new satellite data
      • The orographic wind wake plays an important role in generating the warm pool
      • The interannual variability of the warm pool is strongly correlated with ENSO
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      Impact of sea-ice biology on overall primary production in a biophysical model of the pan-Arctic Ocean

      Frédéric Dupont

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC006983

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      Key Points

      • Sea-ice biology contributes significantly to the Arctic primary production
      • Marginal impact of ice algae on total primary production or nutricline
      • Overall production will increase with declining ice but longer term is uncertain
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      The north-south tilt in the Australian Height Datum is explained by the ocean's mean dynamic topography

      W. E. Featherstone and M. S. Filmer

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007974

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      Key Points

      • MDT explains north-south tilt in AHD
      • The apparent sea level slope problem in Australia is solved
      • GOCE-based MDT models show promise
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      Modification of a Kenai eddy along the Alaskan Stream

      Hiromichi Ueno, Ichiro Yasuda, Sachihiko Itoh, Hiroji Onishi, Yutaka Hiroe, Toshio Suga and Eitarou Oka

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007506

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      Key Points

      • A Kenai eddy was studied through analyses of altimetry and hydrographic data
      • The eddy formed near the Kenai Peninsula and propagated along the Alaskan Stream
      • The original eddy-core water was modified by cold and high-DO water intrusions
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      Relative importance of pelagic and sediment respiration in causing hypoxia in a deep estuary

      D. Bourgault, F. Cyr, P. S. Galbraith and E. Pelletier

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007902

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      Key Points

      • Pelagic oxygen demand (OD) >> sediment OD to explain hypoxia in this estuary
      • Turbulent diffusivity is an order of mag smaller than previously hypothesized
      • The turbulent boundary layer is critical to realistically model oxygen profiles
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      The exchange of Intermediate Water in the southeast Atlantic: Water mass transformations diagnosed from the Lagrangian analysis of a regional ocean model

      Julie Rimaud, Sabrina Speich, Bruno Blanke and Nicolas Grima

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008059

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      Key Points

      • Turbulent dynamics drive AAIW inflow in the southeast Atlantic
      • Two different varieties of AAIW (Indian and Atlantic) merge in the Cape Basin
      • There, they interact together and flow into the Benguela Current
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      Upwelling filaments off Cap Blanc: Interaction of the NW African upwelling current and the Cape Verde frontal zone eddy field?

      T. Meunier, E. D. Barton, B. Barreiro and R. Torres

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007905

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      Key Points

      • Upwelling filaments were surveyed in-situ off Cap Blanc (Mauritania)
      • They are closely related to mesoscale eddies spawned by the Cape Verde Front
      • Topographic processes might also play a role in the filament formation
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      Mind the gap: The impact of missing data on the calculation of phytoplankton phenology metrics

      Harriet Cole, Stephanie Henson, Adrian Martin and Andrew Yool

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008249

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      Key Points

      • Global maps of seasonality metrics and the associated uncertainty are presented
      • Bloom start and peak date errors are 30 and 15 days respectively in most regions
      • The error in bloom start date has a directional bias that changes with latitude
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      Space-based retrievals of air-sea gas transfer velocities using altimeters: Calibration for dimethyl sulfide

      Lonneke Goddijn-Murphy, David K. Woolf and Christa Marandino

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007535

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      Key Points

      • Show relations between altimeter data and field values of air-sea gas transfer
      • DMS gas transfer velocity can be used to estimate direct gas transfer of any gas
      • Direct gas transfer velocity (for Sc = 660) is roughly double 10 m wind speed
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      A large increase of the CO2 sink in the western tropical North Atlantic from 2002 to 2009

      Geun-Ha Park and Rik Wanninkhof

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007803

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      Key Points

      • Surface fCO2SW shows significantly lower increase trend than the atmosphere
      • The slower increase in fCO2SW causes an increase in oceanic CO2 uptake
      • Changes in winter SSTs, correlated to ENSO, and in MLD contribute to this trend
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      The combined role of bay and shelf modes in tsunami amplification along the coast

      G. Bellotti, R. Briganti and G. M. Beltrami

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008061

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      Key Points

      • Bay and shelf resonance effect on tsunami amplification is studied
      • FEM Modal analysis results are compared with tidal gauge data
      • The model can identify coastal areas prone to large tsunami inundation
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      Satellite observations of Antarctic sea ice thickness and volume

      N. T. Kurtz and T. Markus

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008141

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      Key Points

      • First ever study of Southern Ocean sea ice thickness and volume changes
      • Comparisons with available in situ data support the accuracy of the results
      • There is relatively little change in sea ice thickness and volume in Southern Ocean
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      Is the deep Indian Ocean MOC sustained by breaking internal waves?

      T. N. Huussen, A. C. Naveira-Garabato, H. L. Bryden and E. L. McDonagh

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008236

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      Key Points

      • Internal wave dissipation is insufficient to sustain the Indian Ocean MOC
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      Pathways of shelf water export from the Hatteras shelf and slope

      James H. Churchill and Glen G. Gawarkiewicz

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007995

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      Key Points

      • The MAB shelf-edge frontal jet is diverted offshore north of Cape Hatteras
      • Export of water from the inner/middle northern Hatteras Shelf is minimal
      • Shelf water export near Cape Hatteras may be enhanced by Gulf Stream movement
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      Establishing a global climatology of marine phytoplankton phenological characteristics

      M. R. P. Sapiano, C. W. Brown, S. Schollaert Uz and M. Vargas

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007958

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      Key Points

      • A statistical model was fitted to SeaWiFS and MODIS data
      • The type of annual cycle fitted by the model is explored
      • Phytoplankton bloom and termination are extracted and explored
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      On the variations of sea surface pCO2 in the northern South China Sea: A remote sensing based neural network approach

      Young-Heon Jo, Minhan Dai, Weidong Zhai, Xiao-Hai Yan and Shaoling Shang

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007745

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      Key Points

      • NN method based on a feedforward backpropagation algorithm (FFBP)
      • First examination of pCO2 in coastal ocean using remote sensing
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      Remote sensing observation and numerical modeling of an upwelling jet in Guangdong coastal water

      Yanzhen Gu, Jiayi Pan and Hui Lin

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007922

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      Key Points

      • By using satellite data, the developing process of an upwelling jet was observed
      • The internal tide in Honghai Bay facilitates the coastal upwelling
      • The bottom topography controls the cross-shore extent of the upwelling
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      Observed and modeled surface eddy heat fluxes in the eastern Nordic Seas

      P. E. Isachsen, I. Koszalka and J. H. LaCasce

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007935

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      Key Points

      • Surface eddy heat fluxes in the eastern Nordic Seas are mapped by observations
      • Eddies cool waters warmer than 6 degC and waters over shallow depths
      • Strongest cooling near surface takes place over the steepest part of the slope
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      The Stokes drift and wave induced-mass flux in the North Pacific

      Hitoshi Tamura, Yasumasa Miyazawa and Lie-Yauw Oey

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008113

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      Key Points

      • Stokes drift and wave induced-mass flux in realistic wave fields are studied
      • Divergence of wave induced-mass flux is modified by local fetch and currents
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      Southern Ocean fronts: Controlled by wind or topography?

      Robert M. Graham, Agatha M. de Boer, Karen J. Heywood, Mark R. Chapman and David P. Stevens

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007887

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      Key Points

      • ACC fronts do not follow meridional shifts of the SH westerlies
      • The STF shifts south with a southward shift of the wind belt
      • Fronts are influenced by topography over the entire domain, not just local
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      Air-water CO2 fluxes in the microtidal Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina

      Joseph R. Crosswell, Michael S. Wetz, Burke Hales and Hans W. Paerl

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007925

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      Key Points

      • CO2 fluxes in the Neuse Estuary are highly variable and distinct
      • Microtidal estuaries are underrepresented in coastal C budgets
      • Scaling the lower efflux from microtidal systems reduces the global CO2 flux
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      Systematic study of rogue wave probability distributions in a fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation

      L. H. Ying and L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008097

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      Key Points

      • We use the CNLS4 nonlinear wave equation to simulate the ocean wave development
      • We obtain quantitative predictions for the wave height distribution
      • We find a single parameter that can characterize the wave height distribution
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      Arctic Ocean freshwater: How robust are model simulations?

      A. Jahn, Y. Aksenov, B. A. de Cuevas, L. de Steur, S. Häkkinen, E. Hansen, C. Herbaut, M.-N. Houssais, M. Karcher, F. Kauker, C. Lique, A. Nguyen, P. Pemberton, D. Worthen and J. Zhang

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007907

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      Key Points

      • Hindcast simulations of the Arctic freshwater budget show differences
      • The main deficiencies of the simulations are differences in the salinity field
      • Solid freshwater exports show a better agreement than liquid freshwater exports
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      Skill tests of three-dimensional tidal currents in a global ocean model: A look at the North Atlantic

      Patrick G. Timko, Brian K. Arbic, James G. Richman, Robert B. Scott, E. Joseph Metzger and Alan J. Wallcraft

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007617

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      Key Points

      • Skill assessment of tidal currents in a global ocean model
      • Model skill of Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model
      • Skill test methodology for limited model data and sparse observations
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      What determines the spatial pattern in summer upwelling trends on the U.S. West Coast?

      Hyodae Seo, Kenneth H. Brink, Clive E. Dorman, Darko Koracin and Christopher A. Edwards

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008016

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      Key Points

      • Summer SST off the U.S. West Coast has been declining since the 1980s
      • Cooling trend is more significant in Central and Southern California
      • Ekman pumping explains the stronger cooling trend in the south
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      Wind-driven variability of dissolved oxygen below the mixed layer at Station P

      Patrick F. Cummins and Diane Masson

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007847

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      Key Points

      • Low-frequency variability of dissolved oxygen below the mixed layer at Station P
      • Vertical heaving is important to variability and secular trends in oxygen
      • Local Ekman pumping drives oxygen variability below the mixed layer
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      Direct observations of microscale turbulence and thermohaline structure in the Kuroshio Front

      Takeyoshi Nagai, Amit Tandon, Hidekatsu Yamazaki, Mark J. Doubell and Scott Gallager

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007228

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      Key Points

      • Potential vorticity near the Kuroshio is low in the mixed layer and thermocline
      • Directly observed microscale turbulence is enhanced in such low PV regions
      • Adiabatic subduction and turbulent mixing can act in tandem to form watermasses
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      The effect of biological activity, CaCO3 mineral dynamics, and CO2 degassing in the inorganic carbon cycle in sea ice in late winter-early spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

      S. Papadimitriou, H. Kennedy, L. Norman, D. P. Kennedy, G. S. Dieckmann and D. N. Thomas

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008058

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      Key Points

      • Biological and abiotic dissolved inorganic carbon cycling and budget in sea ice
      • Photosynthesis and degassing dominated dissolved inorganic carbon consumption
      • Large dissolved inorganic carbon consumption by carbonate mineral precipitation
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      Wave shadowing and modulation of microwave backscatter from the ocean

      William J. Plant and Gordon Farquharson

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007912

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      Key Points

      • Shadowing does not occur in microwave backscatter from the ocean
      • Phase between wave-modulated power and velocity depends on polarization
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      Impact of Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño/Southern Oscillation wind-forcing on the Wyrtki jets

      C. Gnanaseelan, Aditi Deshpande and Michael J. McPhaden

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007918

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      Key Points

      • Numerical simulation of Wyrtki jets
      • Influence of ENSO on Wyrtki jets
      • ENSO and IOD forcing on EIO is quantified
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      On the runup of long waves on a plane beach

      I-Chi Chan and Philip L.-F. Liu

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007994

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      Key Points

      • Runup of leading tsunami waves
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      Surface circulation in the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean) inferred from remotely sensed data

      L. Renault, T. Oguz, A. Pascual, G. Vizoso and J. Tintore

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007659

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      Key Points

      • Alboran Sea circulation inferred from remotely sensed data
      • Revised interpretation of the Alboran Sea circulation structure
      • Changing structures of anticyclonic Alboran gyres
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      Mapping of seasonal freeze-thaw transitions across the pan-Arctic land and sea ice domains with satellite radar

      J. Mortin, T. M. Schrøder, A. Walløe Hansen, B. Holt and K. C. McDonald

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008001

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      Key Points

      • First map of pan-Arctic seasonal freeze-thaw transitions over land and sea ice
      • Validation against freeze-thaw transition retrieved from surface measurements
      • Spatiotemporal patterns of pan-Arctic seasonal freeze-thaw transition
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      Recent changes in Arctic Ocean circulation revealed by iodine-129 observations and modeling

      Michael Karcher, John N. Smith, Frank Kauker, Rüdiger Gerdes and William M. Smethie Jr.

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007513

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      Key Points

      • Model simulates dispersion of tracer 129 I in the Arctic Ocean
      • Tracer 129 I outlines changes in Arctic Ocean circulation over last decades
      • Middepth Atlantic Water circulation in Canadian Basin breaks down after 2004
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      Direct energy estimation of the 2011 Japan tsunami using deep-ocean pressure measurements

      Liujuan Tang, Vasily V. Titov, Eddie N. Bernard, Yong Wei, Christopher D. Chamberlin, Jean C. Newman, Harold O. Mofjeld, Diego Arcas, Marie C. Eble, Christopher Moore, Burak Uslu, Clint Pells, Michael Spillane, Lindsey Wright and Edison Gica

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007635

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      Key Points

      • Deep-ocean tsunami data provide a robust and direct measure of tsunami energy
      • Propagation energy is the key for accurate and effective tsunami forecasts
      • Energy for the past 15 tsunamis were quantified independently from seismic data
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      The impact of future changes in weather patterns on extreme sea levels over southern Australia

      Frank Colberg and Kathleen L. McInnes

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC007919

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      Key Points

      • Downscaled atmospheric wind fields depend on the method used
      • Future changes in sea surface height reflect changes in atmospheric forcing
      • Mean sea level rise dominates sea level changes due to storm surges
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      Waves and air-sea fluxes from a drifting ASIS buoy during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange experiment

      Erik Sahlée, William M. Drennan, Henry Potter and Michael A. Rebozo

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008032

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      Key Points

      • Enhanced stress in Southern Ocean due to swell interaction
      • Dalton numbers (to 15m/s) not increasing with wind
      • Wave field usually dominated by swell
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      Interactions among the winter monsoon, ocean eddy and ocean thermal front in the South China Sea

      Guihua Wang, Jiaxun Li, Chunzai Wang and Yunwei Yan

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008007

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      Key Points

      • The formation of the west Luzon front is strongly associated with the Luzon eddy
      • There is a positive feedback among winter monsoon, ocean eddy and front over SCS
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      Role of ice dynamics in anomalous ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea during 2006 and 2007

      J. K. Hutchings and I. G. Rigor

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007182

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      Key Points

      • Increased Beaufort SIZ extent since 1998 is controlled by ice drift patterns
      • Increased variability in Beaufort SIZ extent is due to increased young ice cover
      • The 2006 'polynya' is attributed to Chukchi inflow maintained as FY due to drift
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      Ridged sea ice characteristics in the Arctic from a coupled multicategory sea ice model

      S. Mårtensson, H. E. M. Meier, P. Pemberton and J. Haapala

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006936

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      Key Points

      • Multicategory sea ice dynamics improve thickness and variability signficantly
      • Explicit deformed categories allow for improved understanding of the sea ice
      • A relocation of ridged ice toward the central Arctic during the years 1980-2000
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      Evaluation and control mechanisms of volume and freshwater export through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in a high-resolution pan-Arctic ice-ocean model

      Timothy McGeehan and Wieslaw Maslowski

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007261

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      Key Points

      • A new mechanism controlling volume fluxes through CAA is described.
      • Seasonal and interannual variability of volume and freshwater fluxes is examined
      • Model flux estimates are validated with available observations
    44. You have free access to this content
      Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project models

      Mark Johnson, Andrey Proshutinsky, Yevgeny Aksenov, An T. Nguyen, Ron Lindsay, Christian Haas, Jinlun Zhang, Nikolay Diansky, Ron Kwok, Wieslaw Maslowski, Sirpa Häkkinen, Igor Ashik and Beverly de Cuevas

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007257

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      Key Points

      • Evaluated models underestimate the thickness of thicker ice
      • Evaluated models overestimate the thickness of thin ice
      • Ice dynamical processes in regions of fast ice need to be improved
    45. You have free access to this content
      What controls primary production in the Arctic Ocean? Results from an intercomparison of five general circulation models with biogeochemistry

      Ekaterina E. Popova, Andrew Yool, Andrew C. Coward, Frederic Dupont, Clara Deal, Scott Elliott, Elizabeth Hunke, Meibing Jin, Mike Steele and Jinlun Zhang

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007112

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      Key Points

      • Models show similar features in terms of the distribution of primary production
      • However, physical factors controlling this distribution differ between the models
      • Models disagree about which factors, light or nutrients, control present productivity

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