Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 12

December 2013

Volume 118, Issue 12

Pages 6319–7152

  1. Introduction to a Special Collection

    1. Top of page
    2. Introduction to a Special Collection
    3. Regular Articles
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Introduction to special section on The U.S. IOOS Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed (pages 6319–6328)

      Richard A Luettich Jr., L. Donelson Wright, Richard Signell, Carl Friedrichs, Marjy Friedrichs, John Harding, Katja Fennel, Eoin Howlett, Sara Graves, Elizabeth Smith, Gary Crane and Rebecca Baltes

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008939

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  2. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Introduction to a Special Collection
    3. Regular Articles
    1. Wave power variability and trends across the North Pacific (pages 6329–6348)

      Peter D. Bromirski, Daniel R. Cayan, John Helly and Paul Wittmann

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009189

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      Key Points

      • Wave power has generally increased across the North Pacific since 1950
      • Heightened wave power generally occurs during the warm phase of the PDO
      • Extreme winter wave power events have upward trends along the U.S. Pacific coast
    2. Satellite observations of chlorophyll, phytoplankton biomass, and Ekman pumping in nonlinear mesoscale eddies (pages 6349–6370)

      P. Gaube, D. B. Chelton, P. G. Strutton and M. J. Behrenfeld

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009027

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      Key Points

      • Elevated CHL is observed in anticyclones of the South Indian Ocean during winter
      • Eddy-induced Ekman pumping can sustain elevated CHL in anticyclones
      • CHL anomalies in eddy are likely too deep to be observed by satellites in summer
    3. Sea surface transport in the Western Mediterranean Sea: A Lagrangian perspective (pages 6371–6384)

      J.-M. Sayol, A. Orfila, G. Simarro, C. López, L. Renault, A. Galán and D. Conti

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009243

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      Key Points

      • We use FSLE as a tool to study transport processes of the ocean flow
      • AW deflection in Alboran is related to inflow of water to the Northwestern
      • Residence Time in Alboran is 16 days while in the Northwestern around 45
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mean circulation of the Coral Sea (pages 6385–6410)

      William S. Kessler and Sophie Cravatte

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009117

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      Key Points

      • Argo float drift references Coral Sea climatological geostrophic currents
      • Interior and boundary current transports largely explained by the Island Rule
      • Three distinct pathways carry the SEC through the Coral Sea to the equator
    5. Vertical variation of oxygen isotope in Bay of Bengal and its relationships with water masses (pages 6411–6424)

      S. Sengupta, Anant Parekh, S. Chakraborty, K. Ravi Kumar and T. Bose

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008973

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      Key Points

      • Depth specific O isotope data first time from BoB
      • d18O and salinity used for water mass classification
      • d18O-S relations useful for paleo-ocean circulation
    6. Effects of nonlinear physical processes on optimal error growth in predictability experiments of the Kuroshio Large Meander (pages 6425–6436)

      Qiang Wang, Mu Mu and Henk A. Dijkstra

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009276

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      Key Points

      • Nonlinearities have important effects on prediction of Kuroshio large meander
      • Role of nonlinearity in prediction of Kuroshio large meander is revealed
      • Nonlinear method is more suitable to study predictability of Kuroshio meander
    7. Wind to zooplankton: Ecosystem-wide influence of seasonal wind-driven upwelling in and around the Delaware Bay (pages 6437–6450)

      Yoana G. Voynova, Matthew J. Oliver and Jonathan H. Sharp

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008793

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      Key Points

      • Upwelling near Delaware Bay is not episodic, but seasonal, May to September
      • It sustains high primary production, but does not generate phytoplankton blooms
      • We find that there is efficient transfer of carbon to primary consumers
    8. Nonseasonal fluctuations of the Arctic Ocean mass observed by the GRACE satellites (pages 6451–6460)

      Denis L. Volkov and Felix W. Landerer

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009341

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      Key Points

      • Wind drives the non-seasonal variability of Arctic Ocean mass
      • Impact of wind is consistent with Ekman dynamics
      • Both Atlantic and Pacific gateways contributed to large anomalies in 2011
    9. Temporal variability of the meridional overturning circulation at 34.5°S: Results from two pilot boundary arrays in the South Atlantic (pages 6461–6478)

      Christopher S. Meinen, Sabrina Speich, Renellys C. Perez, Shenfu Dong, Alberto R. Piola, Silvia L. Garzoli, Molly O. Baringer, Sergey Gladyshev and Edmo J. D. Campos

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009228

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      Key Points

      • The MOC at 34.5S is highly variable, with a range of 30+ Sv during ~20 months
      • MOC variations at 34.5S occur at periods ranging from a few days to a few months
      • MOC estimates from the PIES moorings agree well with existing validation data
    10. A mesoscale eddy pair southwest of Taiwan and its influence on deep circulation (pages 6479–6494)

      Zhiwei Zhang, Wei Zhao, Jiwei Tian and Xinfeng Liang

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008994

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      Key Points

      • An eddy pair southwest of Taiwan was examined using moored observations
      • Vertical structure and heat and volume transport of the eddy were investigated
      • The eddy pair has great influences on the deep circulation
    11. Observational and model studies of the circulation in the Gulf of Tonkin, South China Sea (pages 6495–6510)

      Yang Ding, Changsheng Chen, Robert C. Beardsley, Xianwen Bao, Maochong Shi, Yu Zhang, Zhigang Lai, Ruixiang Li, Huichan Lin and Nguyen T. Viet

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009455

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      Key Points

      • First long-term moored current measurements in the northern Gulf of Tonkin
      • Observations and model results suggest that summertime circulation is cyclonic
      • Cyclonic circulation due to stratified response to winds and tidal rectification
    12. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice acts as a sink for atmospheric CO2 during periods of snowmelt and surface flooding (pages 6511–6524)

      Daiki Nomura, Mats A. Granskog, Philipp Assmy, Daisuke Simizu and Gen Hashida

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009048

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      Key Points

      • Melting sea ice acts as a sink for atmospheric CO2
      • The magnitude of the CO2 flux depends on the properties of ice surface
      • The presence of snow and superimposed-ice reduced the potential CO2 flux
    13. Numerical study on tidal mixing along the shelf break in the Green Belt in the southeastern Bering Sea (pages 6525–6542)

      T. Tanaka, I. Yasuda, Y. Tanaka and G. S. Carter

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009113

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      Key Points

      • Energy dissipation rates of over 1*10-8 W/kg is reproduced along the Green Belt
      • Dissipation off the shelf break is enhanced by the semi-diurnal internal waves
      • Dissipation on the shelf bottom is enhanced by the diurnal trapped waves
    14. Observed features of the Halmahera and Mindanao Eddies (pages 6543–6560)

      Yuji Kashino, Agus Atmadipoera, Yoshifumi Kuroda and Lukijanto

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009207

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      Key Points

      • The Halmahera Eddy has a clear anti-cyclonic eddy structure
      • The Mindanao Eddy seems not to be a quasi-stationary eddy
      • The Halmahera Eddy shifted northwestward in boreal summer and cold phase
    15. On the wind mechanical forcing of the ocean general circulation (pages 6561–6577)

      Xiaoming Zhai

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009086

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      Key Points

      • Including wind fluctuations produces a qualitative change to wind forcing
      • The effect of wind fluctuations depends on the mean winds
      • Co-variances of wind fluctuations account for most effects of fluctuating winds
    16. The generation and propagation of internal solitary waves in the South China Sea (pages 6578–6589)

      Ying-Jung Chen, Dong Shan Ko and Ping-Tung Shaw

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009319

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      Key Points

      • Internal waves are generated on the two ridges in the Luzon Strait
      • Ebb tides generate internal solitary waves in the South China Sea
      • The generation process explains the wave arrival in the South China Sea
    17. Ground motions on rocky, cliffed, and sandy shorelines generated by ocean waves (pages 6590–6602)

      Adam P. Young, Robert T. Guza, Mark E. Dickson, William C. O'Reilly and Reinhard E. Flick

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008883

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      Key Points

      • Ocean waves generate ground flexing and shaking at eight diverse coastal sites
      • Wave breaking, impacts on rock, and foreshore loading generate ground motion
      • Tide, waves, site composition, morphology, and decay influence site response
    18. Variability of Circumpolar Deep Water transport onto the Amundsen Sea Continental shelf through a shelf break trough (pages 6603–6620)

      K. M. Assmann, A. Jenkins, D. R. Shoosmith, D. P. Walker, S. S. Jacobs and K. W. Nicholls

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008871

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      Key Points

      • Variability of ocean heat transport across the Amundsen Sea shelf break
      • Circumpolar Deep Water layer thickness has a distinct seasonal cycle
      • Background flow supports the majority of on shelf heat transport
    19. Origin and pathways of Winter Intermediate Water in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea using observations and numerical simulation (pages 6621–6633)

      Mélanie Juza, Lionel Renault, Simon Ruiz and Joaquin Tintoré

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009231

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      Key Points

      • Winter Intermediate Water formation sites and pathways in the Mediterranean Sea
      • Winter Intermediate Water and mean circulation in the Western Mediterranean Sea
      • Combining gliders and numerical simulation for ocean processes study
    20. Near-bed turbulence dissipation measurements in the inner surf and swash zone (pages 6634–6647)

      Thijs Lanckriet and Jack A. Puleo

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009251

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      Key Points

      • Turbulence dissipation was quantified using the structure function method
      • Strong dissipation events corresponded with wave breaking detected by video
      • A scaling analysis shows the importance of sediment density stratification
    21. Revisiting the relationship between Loop Current rings and Florida Current transport variability (pages 6648–6657)

      Tanja C. Mildner, Carsten Eden and Lars Czeschel

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009109

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      Key Points

      • Florida Current transport is mostly driven by internal dynamics
      • Blocking mechanism in Yucatan Channel reduces Florida Straits transport
    22. Seasonal and interannual variation in the cross-equatorial meridional currents observed in the eastern Indian Ocean (pages 6658–6671)

      T. Horii, K. Mizuno, M. Nagura, T. Miyama and K. Ando

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009291

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      Key Points

      • Cross-equatorial currents are observed in the eastern Indian Ocean
      • Their seasonal variation is controlled by the zonal wind-stress forcing
      • Their interannual variation is associated with remote forcing by ENSO
    23. Characterization of double diffusive convection steps and heat budget in the deep Arctic Ocean (pages 6672–6686)

      Sheng-Qi Zhou and Yuan-Zheng Lu

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009141

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      Key Points

      • Weak diapycnal mixing is present in the deep Canada Basin
      • The DDC steps show turbulent behavior
      • The DDC steps act as great thermal barrier for heat transfer
    24. Decadal water-property trends in the California Undercurrent, with implications for ocean acidification (pages 6687–6703)

      M. Meinvielle and Gregory C. Johnson

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009299

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      Key Points

      • Post-1980, water-mass property trends were estimated in the California Undercurrent
      • Increased spiciness, decreased oxygen, and potential vorticity were found with time
      • More or stronger Pacific equatorial water was supplying the California Undercurrent
    25. EN4: Quality controlled ocean temperature and salinity profiles and monthly objective analyses with uncertainty estimates (pages 6704–6716)

      Simon A. Good, Matthew J. Martin and Nick A. Rayner

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009067

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      Key Points

      • EN4 dataset of quality-controlled temperature and salinity profiles is described
      • Dataset covers 1900 to present and includes monthly objective analyses
      • A novel method is presented to estimate uncertainty in the objective analyses
    26. Deep water renewal in Lake Baikal: A model for long-term analyses (pages 6717–6733)

      Sebastiano Piccolroaz and Marco Toffolon

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009029

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      Key Points

      • A long-term model for deep water renewal, capturing the main physical processes
      • Vertical profiles of temperature, oxygen, and other tracers are reproduced
      • Results quantify deep ventilation and assess its impact on the lake system
    27. Variability in tropical cyclone heat potential over the Southwest Indian Ocean (pages 6734–6746)

      N. Malan, C. J. C. Reason and B. R. Loveday

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008958

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      Key Points

      • First climatology of TCHP in SW Indian Ocean
      • Interannual and decadal variability of TCHP
      • Potential predictability of rainfall
    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An exchange flow between the Okhotsk Sea and the North Pacific driven by the East Kamchatka Current (pages 6747–6758)

      Shinichiro Kida and Bo Qiu

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009464

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      Key Points

      • The East Kamchatka Current is capable of driving an exchange flow
      • The exchange transport can be estimated from the Kelvin's Circulation Theorem
      • The presence of a subsurface peninsula affects the exchange flow
    29. Low-frequency western Pacific Ocean sea level and circulation changes due to the connectivity of the Philippine Archipelago (pages 6759–6773)

      Wei Zhuang, Bo Qiu and Yan Du

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009376

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      Key Points

      • Coherent sea level changs around Philippine are driven by tropical Pacific wind
      • Coastal Kelvin waves convey the SSH signals from Pacific into the marginal seas
      • The around-island oceanic pathway modulates the Pacific western boundary current
    30. Lagrangian evolution of DMS during the Southern Ocean gas exchange experiment: The effects of vertical mixing and biological community shift (pages 6774–6790)

      M. Yang, S. D. Archer, B. W. Blomquist, D. T. Ho, V. P. Lance and R. J. Torres

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009329

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      Key Points

      • DMS concentration demonstrated large variability in a Lagrangian framework
      • Vertical mixing diluted surface DMS stock but increased nutrient availability
      • DMS production (DMSP) modeled from bulk does not capture rapid changes
    31. Poleward propagating subinertial alongshore surface currents off the U.S. West Coast (pages 6791–6806)

      Sung Yong Kim, Bruce D. Cornuelle, Eric J. Terrill, Burt Jones, Libe Washburn, Mark A. Moline, Jeffrey D. Paduan, Newell Garfield, John L. Largier, Greg Crawford and P. Michael Kosro

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20400

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      Key Points

      • A unique resource to examine synoptic-scale alongshore variability
      • Isolation of equatorward wind events in winter using a statistical model
      • Poleward propagating surface signals year-round
    32. Coastal cliff-top ground motions as proxies for environmental processes (pages 6807–6823)

      Emma C. Norman, Nick J. Rosser, Matthew J. Brain, David N. Petley and Michael Lim

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008963

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      Key Points

      • Coastal cliff microseismic motions as proxies for environmental processes
      • Tidal inundation duration does not depict marine energy transfer distribution
    33. The distribution of dissolved and total dissolvable aluminum in the Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin region of the Arctic Ocean (pages 6824–6837)

      Timothy Giesbrecht, Nari Sim, Kristin J. Orians and Jay T. Cullen

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009202

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      Key Points

      • Near-surface maxima for dissolved Al exist in the Beaufort Sea in 2007
      • Onshore-offshore subsurface gradients in particulate Al from shelf sediment
      • Sea-ice melt and aerosols likely drive surface Al enrichment in the Beaufort
    34. Near cessation of Eighteen Degree Water renewal in the western North Atlantic in the warm winter of 2011–2012 (pages 6838–6853)

      Sam Billheimer and Lynne D. Talley

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009024

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      Key Points

      • Winter 2011-2012 was the weakest EDW formation season over the past 8 years
      • Weak EDW resulted from weak surface cooling late in winter during high NAO
    35. On the dynamics of the seasonal variation in the South China Sea throughflow transport (pages 6854–6866)

      Jiayan Yang, Xiaopei Lin and Dexing Wu

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009367

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      Key Points

      • The seasonal SCSTF transport is forced by WBCs off the Philippines
      • Both WBC transports and bifurcation latitude are important
      • First theoretical explanation for seasonal SCSTF transport
    36. Distribution and composition of suspended biogenic particles in surface waters across Subarctic and Arctic Seas (pages 6867–6880)

      Shea N. Wyatt, David W. Crawford, Ian A. Wrohan and Diana E. Varela

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009214

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      Key Points

      • Biogenic particles are compared across large subarctic and arctic domains
      • Biogenic silica was highest in Bering/Chukchi and Canadian Arctic Archipelago
      • Particle ratios were enriched with biogenic silica in areas of high biomass
    37. Intermediate and deep water formation in the Okinawa Trough (pages 6881–6893)

      Hirohiko Nakamura, Ayako Nishina, Zhaojun Liu, Fumiyo Tanaka, Mark Wimbush and Jae-Hun Park

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009326

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      Key Points

      • The Kerama Gap bottom overflow causes the deep ventilation in Okinawa Trough
      • Salinity minima are attenuated by strong diapycnal mixing in Okinawa Trough
      • Okinawa Trough is an upwelling area of North Pacific Intermediate Water
    38. The pathways and properties of the Amazon River Plume in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean (pages 6894–6913)

      Victoria J. Coles, Maureen T. Brooks, Julia Hopkins, Michael R. Stukel, Patricia L. Yager and Raleigh R. Hood

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008981

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      Key Points

      • Amazon River plume is simulated in an ocean model
      • The plume takes four main pathways
      • Plume and rain influence western Atlantic salinity equally
    39. Skill testing a three-dimensional global tide model to historical current meter records (pages 6914–6933)

      Patrick G. Timko, Brian K. Arbic, James G. Richman, Robert B. Scott, E. Joseph Metzger and Alan J. Wallcraft

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009071

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      Key Points

      • An objective measure of model skill in simulating 3-D tidal currents
      • An objective measure of model skill for tidal kinetic energy
    40. A simplified 3-D Navier-Stokes numerical model for landslide-tsunami: Application to the Gulf of Mexico (pages 6934–6950)

      J. Horrillo, A. Wood, G.-B Kim and A. Parambath

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2012JC008689

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      Key Points

      • To present the underlying physics of a 3-D model for landslide tsunami
      • To validated the model against laboratory experiments suggested by the NTHMP
      • To apply the 3-D model to a submarine landslide scenario in the Gulf of Mexico
    41. The effect of basal channels on oceanic ice-shelf melting (pages 6951–6964)

      Thomas Millgate, Paul R. Holland, Adrian Jenkins and Helen L. Johnson

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009402

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      Key Points

      • Increasing basal channels decreases mean oceanic melt rate
    42. Turbulent kinetic energy and coherent structures in a tidal river (pages 6965–6981)

      S. A. Talke, A. R. Horner-Devine, C. C. Chickadel and A. T. Jessup

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2012JC008103

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      Key Points

      • Surface boils contain two to three times more dissipation than surrounding fluids
      • TKE Production exceeds dissipation near the bed
      • Boils are shown to be an important source of TKE transport
    43. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Simulated halocline variability in the Baltic Sea and its impact on hypoxia during 1961–2007 (pages 6982–7000)

      Germo Väli, H. E. Markus Meier and Jüri Elken

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009192

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      Key Points

      • Halocline depth in the Baltic has large seasonal and interannual variations
      • Halocline decadal variations are controlled by the runoff and zonal wind stress
      • Anoxic/hypoxic extent variability is controlled by the changes halocline depth
    44. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Impact of sea-ice processes on the carbonate system and ocean acidification at the ice-water interface of the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic Ocean (pages 7001–7023)

      Agneta Fransson, Melissa Chierici, Lisa A. Miller, Gauthier Carnat, Elizabeth Shadwick, Helmuth Thomas, Simon Pineault and Tim N. Papakyriakou

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009164

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      Key Points

      • Evidence of impact of sea-ice dynamics on CO2 system at ice-water interface
      • Larger variability of CO2 system in upper 2 m than upper 20 m from solid CaCO3
      • Ice melt promote enhanced oceanic CO2 uptake
    45. Multidecadal regional sea level shifts in the Pacific over 1958–2008 (pages 7024–7035)

      Jae-Hong Moon, Y. Tony Song, Peter D. Bromirski and Arthur J. Miller

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009297

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      Key Points

      • SLR trends in the Pacific have undergone two shifts over the last 50 years
      • Multi-decadal SLR shifts can be explained by ocean heat and PDO-related winds
      • Climate-induced sea level can impose a long-term impact on coastal communities
    46. Intrusion of warm surface water beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica (pages 7036–7048)

      A. A. Stern, M. S. Dinniman, V. Zagorodnov, S. W. Tyler and D. M. Holland

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008842

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      Key Points

      • There is an annual intrusion of warm water beneath the McMurdo ice shelf
      • This intrusion causes elevated melt rates near to the ice front
      • The intruding water is surface water originating west of the Ross Sea Polynya
    47. Evaluating the role of sediment-bacteria interactions on Escherichia coli concentrations at beaches in southern Lake Michigan (pages 7049–7065)

      Pramod Thupaki, Mantha S. Phanikumar, David J. Schwab, Meredith B. Nevers and Richard L. Whitman

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008919

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      Key Points

      • The model with sediment-bacteria interactions predicts EC levels better
      • Attached fraction of bacteria is highly variable in the water column
      • New model predicts higher mean and lower peak EC concentrations
    48. In situ estimates of submesoscale horizontal eddy diffusivity across an ocean front (pages 7066–7080)

      F. Nencioli, F. d'Ovidio, A. M. Doglioli and A. A. Petrenko

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009252

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      Key Points

      • In situ measurements were collected across a front in the western Gulf of Lion
      • Front width and strain rate were estimated from the observation
      • Eddy diffusivity was computed by combining front width and strain rate estimates
    49. Effects of Kuroshio intrusions on nonlinear internal waves in the South China Sea during winter (pages 7081–7094)

      Jae-Hun Park and David Farmer

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008983

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      Key Points

      • Persistent nonlinear internal waves are observed in the SCS during winter
      • Kuroshio intrusion modulates propagation paths and arrival time of NLIWs
      • Internal wave fields can be a sensitive indicator of mesoscale variability
    50. Infragravity response to variable wave forcing in the nearshore (pages 7095–7106)

      S. Contardo and G. Symonds

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009430

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      Key Points

      • The infragravity response is stronger to swell than wind-sea forcing
      • Breakpoint forcing is dominant long-wave generation mechanism during sea breeze
      • Bound wave release mechanism is only present during swell-dominated period
    51. Topographic effects on current variability in the Caspian Sea (pages 7107–7116)

      P. Ghaffari, P. E. Isachsen and J. H. LaCasce

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009128

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      Key Points

      • Topographic effect on current variability
      • Potential vorticity contours in the Caspian Sea
      • Equivalent barotropic model
    52. Ice shelf/ocean interactions under the Amery Ice Shelf: Seasonal variability and its effect on marine ice formation (pages 7117–7131)

      Laura Herraiz-Borreguero, Ian Allison, Mike Craven, Keith W. Nicholls and Mark A. Rosenberg

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009158

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      Key Points

      • The marine ice layer of the Amery Ice Shelf is subject to seasonal variability
      • HSSW is the source water of the observed ISW at borehole AM01
      • Winter inflow of HSSW is likely to enhance frazil ice formation
    53. Pelagic primary productivity and upper ocean nutrient dynamics across Subarctic and Arctic Seas (pages 7132–7152)

      Diana E. Varela, David W. Crawford, Ian A. Wrohan, Shea N. Wyatt and Eddy C. Carmack

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009211

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      Key Points

      • Canada Basin had the lowest primary and new production rates
      • High new production in the Chukchi Sea was dominated by >5 um phytoplankton
      • Urea was an important nitrogen source for phytoplankton when nitrate was low

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