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Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 3

March 2013

Volume 118, Issue 3

Pages 1051–1624

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Comments
    4. Reply to Comment
    1. You have free access to this content
      Diagnosis of water mass transformation and formation rates in a high-resolution GCM of the North Pacific (pages 1051–1069)

      S. Nishikawa, H. Tsujino, K. Sakamoto and H. Nakano

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008116

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      Key points

      • Air-sea transformation can be a good indicator of subduction of STMW
      • Air-sea transformation is not directly linked to subduction of CMW
      • Net transformation is partly contributed by eddy effects
    2. You have free access to this content
      On the response of Southern Hemisphere subpolar gyres to climate change in coupled climate models (pages 1070–1086)

      Zhaomin Wang

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20111

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      Key Points

      • Responses of the southern subpolar gyres to climate changes
      • Consistently intensified westward flow close to the coast of Antarctica
      • Large discrepancies in changes in gyre axes and gyre strengths
    3. You have free access to this content
      Predicting multiyear North Atlantic Ocean variability (pages 1087–1098)

      W. Hazeleger, B. Wouters, G. J. van Oldenborgh, S. Corti, T. Palmer, D. Smith, N. Dunstone, J. Kröger, H. Pohlmann and J.-S. von Storch

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20117

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      Key Points

      • Multiyear variablity in the North Atlantic ocean is predictable
      • Climate events are not well predictable
      • There is scope for multiyear AMOC predictions
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      Dynamics of the summer shelf circulation and transient upwelling off Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia (pages 1099–1125)

      Jiangtao Xu, Ryan J. Lowe, Gregory N. Ivey, Charitha Pattiaratchi, Nicole L. Jones and Richard Brinkman

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20098

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      Key Points

      • Coastal cooling dominated by upwelling; warming by alongshore advection
      • Vertical structure of upwelling is strongly influenced by stratification
      • Upwelling depends on the balance between wind and along-shelf pressure gradient
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An experimental and numerical investigation on wave-mud interactions (pages 1126–1141)

      W. Y. Hsu, H. H. Hwung, T. J. Hsu, A. Torres-Freyermuth and R. Y. Yang

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20103

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      Key Points

      • The rheological response of mud layer under wave-mud interaction
      • suggesting a proxy for calculating wave attenuation in large-scale modeling
      • evaluate the constant viscosity assumption with linear/nonlinear models
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      Observations of spatial flow patterns at the coral colony scale on a shallow reef flat (pages 1142–1156)

      James L. Hench and Johanna H. Rosman

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20105

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      Key Points

      • persistent wakes, jets, eddies were observed at coral colony scales (0.1-10 m)
      • colony-scale spatial flow variability can be as large as reef-scale variability
      • spatial flow patterns vary with frequency content of incident flow
    7. Continental Shelf processes

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      Effects of transient bottom water currents and oxygen concentrations on benthic exchange rates as assessed by eddy correlation measurements (pages 1157–1169)

      Moritz Holtappels, Ronnie N. Glud, Daphne Donis, Bo Liu, Andrew Hume, Frank Wenzhöfer and Marcel M. M. Kuypers

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20112

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      Key Points

      • Eddy correlation approach estimates benthic O2 uptake
      • Eddy correlation (EC) flux is simulated for transient bottom water conditions
      • EC flux can significantly deviate from flux across the sediment-water interface
    8. General Ocean Circulation/General circulation

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      Gap-leaping Kuroshio and blocking westward-propagating Rossby wave and eddy in the Luzon Strait (pages 1170–1181)

      Jiuyou Lu and Qinyu Liu

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20116

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      Key Points

      • topography in Luzon Strait controls Kuroshio gap-leaping behavior.
      • gap-leaping Kuroshio blocks the westward propagating Rossby wave and eddy.
      • gap-leaping Kuroshio and corresponding PV front form the dynamic barrier effect.
    9. You have free access to this content
      Effects of stretching on maintaining the Kuroshio meander (pages 1182–1194)

      Masao Kurogi, Hiroyasu Hasumi and Yukio Tanaka

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20123

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      Key Points

      • Stretching effect plays an important role in maintaining the Kuroshio meander.
      • Kuroshio meander does not appear in relatively large velocity case.
    10. You have free access to this content
      Enhanced gas fluxes in small sea ice leads and cracks: Effects on CO 2 exchange and ocean acidification (pages 1195–1205)

      N. S. Steiner, W. G. Lee and J. R. Christian

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20100

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      Key Points

      • Gas exchange in sea-ice is inadequately represented in sea-ice models
      • Enhanced exchange accelerates Arctic ocean acidification
      • Enhanced exchange shifts the seasonal CO2 flux cycle in the Arctic
    11. General Ocean Circulation/General circulation

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      On the dynamics of the South China Sea deep circulation (pages 1206–1210)

      Jian Lan, Ningning Zhang and Yu Wang

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20104

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      Key Points

      • Our numerical results confirm the SCS deep circulation is cyclonic.
      • Our experiment reveals Luzon overflow controls over SCS deep circulation.
      • The driving mechanism is elucidated based on PV integral constraint.
    12. You have free access to this content
      Linking synoptic forcing and local mesoscale processes with biological dynamics off Ningaloo Reef (pages 1211–1225)

      Vincent Rossi, Ming Feng, Charitha Pattiaratchi, Moninya Roughan and Anya M. Waite

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20110

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      Key Points

      • Biophysical description of the water masses off NW Australia in autumn
      • Vertical mixing of shallow regenerated nutrient enhance phytoplankton offshore
      • Wind-driven upwelling and submesoscale eddies promote coastal productivity
    13. You have free access to this content
      Barotropic and baroclinic semidiurnal tidal currents in two contrasting coastal upwelling zones of Chile (pages 1226–1238)

      L. Bravo, M. Ramos, M. Sobarzo, O. Pizarro and A. Valle-Levinson

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20128

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      Key Points

      • The variability of baroclinic semidiurnal currents were modulated by upwelling
      • High dynamical modes were important when existed a supercritical topography
      • In upwelling zones the internal wave could contribute to biological productivity
    14. You have free access to this content
      Physical controls on hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay: A numerical modeling study (pages 1239–1256)

      Malcolm E. Scully

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20138

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      Key Points

      • physical processes impact hypoxia in Ches Bay
      • wind speed and direction are most important to seasonal cycle
      • wind, river discharge and temperature all impact overall magnitude of hypoxia
    15. You have free access to this content
      Water column iron dynamics in the subarctic North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea (pages 1257–1271)

      Ren Uchida, Kenshi Kuma, Aya Omata, Satoko Ishikawa, Nanako Hioki, Hiromichi Ueno, Yutaka Isoda, Keiichiro Sakaoka, Yoshihiko Kamei and Shohgo Takagi

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20097

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      Key Points

      • Higher iron in deep waters of the western than eastern subarctic North Pacific
      • High dissolved iron and deep maximum values in the Bering Sea deep waters
      • Long time accumulations of iron by slow circulation of deep waters
    16. You have free access to this content
      Analyzing the footprints of near-surface aqueous turbulence: An image processing-based approach (pages 1272–1286)

      J. Schnieders, C. S. Garbe, W. L. Peirson, G. B. Smith and C. J. Zappa

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20102

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      Key Points

      • New method for the analysis of footprints of nearsurface turbulence
    17. Arctic Climate

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      Inter-annual to decadal sea-level variability in the coastal zones of the Norwegian and Siberian Seas: The role of atmospheric forcing (pages 1287–1301)

      F. M. Calafat, D. P. Chambers and M. N. Tsimplis

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20106

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      Key Points

      • There is a link between the Norwegian coast and the eastern North Atlantic
      • A vorticity index explains much of the variability in the Siberian Seas
      • The recent strengthening of the Beaufort Gyre is reflected in coastal sea level
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      Low-frequency sea level variability in the southern Indian Ocean and its impacts on the oceanic meridional transports (pages 1302–1315)

      Wei Zhuang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Andreas Schiller and Dongxiao Wang

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20129

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      Key Points

      • North of 17S, low-frequency SSH variability is primarily driven by local wind
      • During 1993–2009, the HW rise is largely induced by the upper ocean warming
      • The cross-basin SSH difference is closely related to the meridional transports
    19. You have free access to this content
      Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of model hypoxia estimates for the Texas-Louisiana shelf (pages 1316–1332)

      Jann Paul Mattern, Katja Fennel, and Michael Dowd

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20130

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      Key Points

      • Emulator-based uncertainty analysis for a 3D model of northern Gulf of Mexico
      • Sensitivity of hypoxia estimates due to uncertainty in physical/biol. inputs
      • Found strong space and time-dependence of uncertainty in hypoxia estimates
    20. You have free access to this content
      Direct observations of the Antarctic circumpolar current transport on the northern flank of the Kerguelen Plateau (pages 1333–1348)

      G. M. Damerell, K. J. Heywood and D. P. Stevens

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20067

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      Key Points

      • Complex meandering current system with STF/SAF to the north, PF to the south.
      • Total eastward volume transport in the region is 174 {plus minus} 22 Sv.
      • Presence of NIDW in the ACC on the northern flank of the Kerguelen Plateau.
    21. You have free access to this content
      Revisit the interannual variability of the North Equatorial Current transport with ECMWF ORA-S3 (pages 1349–1366)

      Fangguo Zhai and Dunxin Hu

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20093

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      Key Points

      • The NEC transport variation is highly related to ENSO events.
      • Wind anomalies develop in the tropical northwestern Pacific during ENSO.
      • Gyre anomalies are induced in the tropical northwestern Pacific during ENSO.
    22. You have free access to this content
      Mesoscale eddies in the southern Gulf of California during summer: Characteristics and interaction with the wind stress (pages 1367–1381)

      M. F. Lavín, Rubén Castro, Emilio Beier and Victor M. Godínez

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20132

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      Key Points

      • Description of the structure of the deep eddies of the Gulf of California
      • Four eddies with alternating sense of rotation were sampled in Gulf California
    23. You have free access to this content
      On the seasonal freshwater stratification in the proximity of fast-flowing tidewater outlet glaciers in a sub-Arctic sill fjord (pages 1382–1395)

      J. Mortensen, J. Bendtsen, R. J. Motyka, K. Lennert, M. Truffer, M. Fahnestock and S. Rysgaard

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20134

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      Key Points

      • First seasonal analysis of freshwater distribution close to a tidewater glacier
      • Fraction model of glacial ice melt and subglacial freshwater discharge
      • Major implication for understanding the glacier-fjord-interaction
    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Observations of mixed layer deepening during an Antarctic gale (pages 1396–1404)

      G. F. Lane-Serff and K. L. Stansfield

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20140

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      Key Points

      • Observations made of mixed-layer deepening and freshening in an Antarctic gale
      • Input of wind work led to mixed layer deepening to 120 m, scaling on u*/f
      • Freshwater input came from rapid melting of sea ice, faster than models predict
    25. You have free access to this content
      A new observationally motivated Richardson number based mixing parametrization for oceanic mesoscale flow (pages 1405–1419)

      Alexander Forryan, Adrian P. Martin, Meric A. Srokosz, Ekaterina E. Popova, Stuart C. Painter and Angelika H. H. Renner

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20108

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      Key Points

      • A new Richardson number parametrization for turbulent diffusivity is proposed
      • The parametrization is derived from observation.
      • The parametrization is most appropriate to mesoscale flow in the ocean interior.
    26. You have free access to this content
      Seasonal variability and coastal upwelling near Cape Santa Marta (Brazil) (pages 1420–1433)

      Paula C. Campos, Osmar O. Möller Jr., Alberto R. Piola and Elbio D. Palma

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20131

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      Key Points

      • The upwelling events in CSM occur in pulses
      • The upwelling core is located south of the cape.
      • Coastline orientation and shelf width determine the location of upwelling core
    27. You have free access to this content
      Tidal currents in the Adriatic as measured by surface drifters (pages 1434–1444)

      Pierre-Marie Poulain

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20147

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      Key Points

      • Adriatic tidal currents are measured with surface drifters
      • Geographical structure of the tidal currents in the entire Adriatic is described
      • Tidal amplitudes are under-estimated with respect to mooring measurements
    28. You have free access to this content
      Estimation of phytoplankton size fractions based on spectral features of remote sensing ocean color data (pages 1445–1458)

      Zuchuan Li, Lin Li, Kaishan Song and Nicolas Cassar

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20137

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      Key Points

      • Five types of spectral features sensitive to PSF are determined
      • Relationship between PSF and spectral features are developed
      • Global distributions of phytoplankton size fractions are mapped
    29. You have free access to this content
      Water and suspended sediment division at a stratified tidal junction (pages 1459–1472)

      F. A. Buschman, M. van der Vegt, A. J. F. Hoitink and P. Hoekstra

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20124

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      Key Points

      • Flow phase differences affect water and salt transports at a tidal junction
      • Secondary flow controls sediment division close to a junction
      • Close to a tidal junction salinity may increase landwards
    30. You have free access to this content
      Chlorophyll bloom development and the subtropical front in the North Pacific (pages 1473–1488)

      Cara Wilson, Tracy A. Villareal, Mark A. Brzezinski, Jeffrey W. Krause and Andrey Y. Shcherbina

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20143

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      Key Points

      • Data is presented from 4 cruises in the NPSG near a chlorophyll bloom
      • 4 of the 5 blooms studied occurred at the STF
      • We describe an optimal set of conditions which could stimulate bloom development
    31. Ocean Surface Waves

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      Improved landslide-tsunami prediction: Effects of block model parameters and slide model (pages 1489–1507)

      Valentin Heller and Johannes Spinneken

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20099

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      Key Points

      • Commonly ignored block model parameters affect wave height by a factor of two
      • Block slides may generate significant smaller tsunamis than granular slides
      • New empirical equations improve landslide-tsunami hazard assessment
    32. In situ Observations

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      Kuroshio-induced wake in the lee of Green Island off Taiwan (pages 1508–1519)

      Ming-Huei Chang, Tswen Yung Tang, Chung-Ru Ho and Shenn-Yu Chao

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20151

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      Key Points

      • Vortex-Street like structure and shedding eddy are observed.
      • Wake water is colder, saltier, and higher chlorophyll, and produces ~60 m dome
      • Turbulence mixing occurred in the island wake
    33. Interdisciplinary Oceanography

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      A modeling study of seasonal variations of sea ice and plankton in the Bering and Chukchi Seas during 2007–2008 (pages 1520–1533)

      Jia Wang, Haoguo Hu, Joaquim Goes, Jennifer Miksis-Olds, Colleen Mouw, Eurico D'Sa, Helga Gomes, D. R. Wang, Kohei Mizobata, Sei-ichi Saitoh and Lin Luo

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008322

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      Key Points

      • 3D Sea Ice-Ocean-Ecosystem model is used in the Bering and Chukchi Seas
      • The seasonal cycle of the Bering Sea lower trophic level ecosystem is simulated
      • Sea-ice retreat controls the evolution of the plankton blooms
    34. Estuarine and Coastal Physical Oceanography

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      Vortex generation in oscillatory canopy flow (pages 1534–1542)

      Marco Ghisalberti and Tamara Schlosser

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20073

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      Key Points

      • Coherent vortices are formed at the top of a canopy in oscillatory flow
      • There are two requirements (one temporal, one dynamic) for vortex generation
      • Vortex generation greatly increases the rate of vertical mixing in the canopy
    35. You have free access to this content
      Three-dimensional mixture simulations of flow over dynamic rippled beds (pages 1543–1555)

      A.M. Penko, J. Calantoni, S. Rodriguez-Abudo, D.L. Foster and D.N. Slinn

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20120

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      Key Points

      • SedMix3D is a 3D mixture theory model simulating flow over bedforms.
      • 3D simulated flow results agreed well with 2D laboratory observations.
      • Simulation exhibits cross-flow variation of vorticity and suspended sediment.
    36. You have free access to this content
      Yanai waves in the western equatorial Indian Ocean (pages 1556–1570)

      A. Chatterjee, D. Shankar, J.P. McCreary Jr. and P. N. Vinayachandran

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20121

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      Key Points

      • Yanai waves in the western EIO are excited by both winds and eddies.
      • Barotropic instability of the Southern Gyre forms eddies that advect equatorward.
      • Yanai waves associated with several baroclinic modes superpose to create beams.
    37. You have free access to this content
      Role of advection in Arctic Ocean lower trophic dynamics: A modeling perspective (pages 1571–1586)

      E. E. Popova, A. Yool, Y. Aksenov and A. C. Coward

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20126

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      Key Points

      • Advection plays an important role in supplying biogenic nutrients to arctic ecosystems
      • Continental shelf pump sustain up to 20% of deep Arctic Ocean primary production
      • We caution against a one-dimensional view of ecosystem dynamics in the Arctic Ocean
    38. You have free access to this content
      Wave-current interactions in a wave-dominated tidal inlet (pages 1587–1605)

      Guillaume Dodet, Xavier Bertin, Nicolas Bruneau, André B. Fortunato, Alphonse Nahon and Aron Roland

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20146

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      Key Points

      • Waves generate a setup in the lagoon representing 7%-15% of offshore wave height
      • Ebb currents strongly attenuate wave height in the inlet
      • Current-induced wave transformation attenuates seaward sediment transport
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      Solute dispersion in the coastal boundary layer of southern Lake Michigan (pages 1606–1617)

      Pramod Thupaki, Mantha S. Phanikumar and Richard L. Whitman

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20136

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      Key Points

      • We model solute dispersion in the coastal boundary layer of Lake Michigan
      • The model described flow reversals and large-scale hydrodynamics accurately
      • Improved descriptions of physical processes are needed closer to the shoreline
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    1. Climate Variability

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      Comment on “Current separation and upwelling over the southeast shelf of Vietnam in the South China Sea” by Chen et al. (pages 1618–1623)

      Joachim W. Dippner, Deniz Bombar, Natalie Loick-Wilde, Maren Voss and Ajit Subramaniam

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20118

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      Reply to comment on “Current separation and upwelling over the southeast shelf of Vietnam in the South China Sea” (page 1624)

      Changsheng Chen, Zhigang Lai, Robert Beardsley, Qichun Xu, Huichan Lin, Nguyen Trung Viet and Ding Yang

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20114

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