Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 9

September 2013

Volume 118, Issue 9

Pages 3979–4754

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modulation of the sea-surface temperature in the Southeast Pacific by the atmospheric low-level coastal jet (pages 3979–3998)

      Xiaodong Hong, Shouping Wang, Teddy R. Holt, Paul J. Martin and Larry O'Neill

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20289

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      Key Points

      • Strong jet carries cold and dry air with more cloud cover
      • Ekman process is the main process in modulating SST in the coastal area
      • surface heat exchange is the main process in the offshore open ocean area
    2. A nonstationary analysis for the Northern Adriatic extreme sea levels (pages 3999–4016)

      Marinella Masina and Alberto Lamberti

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20313

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      Key Points

      • Slight time increase is found in Venice and Porto Corsini extreme sea levels
      • Coast exposure governs extreme sea level seasonal patterns in Northern Adriatic
      • Significant correlation exists between Northern Adriatic extremes and NAO and AO
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface marine sediments across the North American Arctic margin (pages 4017–4035)

      Miguel A. Goñi, Alison E. O'Connor, Zou Zou Kuzyk, Mark B. Yunker, Charles Gobeil and Robie W. Macdonald

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20286

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      Key Points

      • Regional contrasts in sedimentary inorganic and organic carbon distributions
      • Regional contrasts in loadings, age and source of sedimentary organic matter
      • Contrasts in composition and source of terrigenous organic matter
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Impact of U.S. west coastline inhomogeneity and synoptic forcing on winds, wind stress, and wind stress curl during upwelling season (pages 4036–4051)

      Clive E. Dorman, John F. Mejia and Darko Koračin

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20282

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      Key Points

      • Along shore pressure gradient drives along shore winds
      • Synoptic scale determines along shore pressure gradient
      • US West Coast 5 major capes are major factor in wind structure
    5. El Niño Southern Oscillation in an ensemble ocean reanalysis and coupled climate models (pages 4052–4071)

      Chunxue Yang and Benjamin S. Giese

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20284

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      Key Points

      • The long-term change of ENSO in ensemble ocean reanalysis and climate models.
      • ENSO has prominent decadal variability in ensemble reanalysis.
      • Most of models in CMIP5 have realistic representation of the strength of ENSO.
    6. Climatic variability of the circulation in the Rhode Island Sound: A modeling study (pages 4072–4091)

      Yiyong Luo, Lew Rothstein, Qianqian Liu and Shuwen Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20285

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      Key Points

      • The tidal residual current forms a cyclonic circulation in the RIS.
      • The cyclonic circulation in summer is strengthened owing to stratification.
      • Global warming will induce a stronger cyclonic circulation in the RIS.
    7. SST subseasonal variability in the central Benguela upwelling system as inferred from satellite observations (1999–2009) (pages 4092–4110)

      Katerina Goubanova, Séréna Illig, Eric Machu, Véronique Garçon and Boris Dewitte

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20287

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      Key Points

      • Two regimes of SST subseasonal variability are evidenced
      • The wind-SST relationship is modulated seasonally by mean stratification
      • Results suggest a modulation of the intraseasonal SST variability by the AAO
    8. Shoaling internal solitary waves (pages 4111–4124)

      B. R. Sutherland, K. J. Barrett and G. N. Ivey

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20291

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      Key Points

      • Experiments classify breaking of shoaling non-KdV internal solitary waves
      • Breaking depth is predicted with variables that can be gathered in the field.
      • Breaking results in particle transport and resuspension
    9. Propagation of internal tides generated near Luzon Strait: Observations from autonomous gliders (pages 4125–4138)

      Luc Rainville, Craig M. Lee, Daniel L. Rudnick and Kai-Chieh Yang

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20293

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      Key Points

      • Mean and variability of the low-mode internal wave field observed by gliders
      • In-situ estimates of internal tide amplitude and phase
      • Baroclinic mode-1 energy flux is estimated from gliders over a large region
    10. River flow controls on tides and tide-mean water level profiles in a tidal freshwater river (pages 4139–4151)

      M. G. Sassi and A. J. F. Hoitink

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20297

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      Key Points

      • Tidal damping differs between the rising and falling limbs of a discharge wave
      • Subtidal friction due to river-tide interaction is nonlinear, but predictable
      • Fortnightly water levels vary asynchronously along a tidal river
    11. Getz Ice Shelf melting response to changes in ocean forcing (pages 4152–4168)

      S. Jacobs, C. Giulivi, P. Dutrieux, E. Rignot, F. Nitsche and J. Mouginot

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20298

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      Key Points

      • Ocean and satellite measurements show 4X range in Getz Ice Shelf melt rates
      • 2007 rate exceeds balance melting, produces largest Antarctic meltwater volume
      • Melt sensitive to thermocline, ice and water depth, ocean circulation strength
    12. Effect of tides on mouth bar morphology and hydrodynamics (pages 4169–4183)

      Nicoletta Leonardi, Alberto Canestrelli, Tao Sun and Sergio Fagherazzi

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20302

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      Key Points

      • Tides increase on average the spreading of the flow jet at river mouths.
      • Tides create residual currents that affect the final shape of mouth bars.
      • Mouth bars in a tidally dominated river are dissected by three channels.
    13. Summer nitrogenous nutrient transport and its fate in the Taiwan Strait: A coupled physical-biological modeling approach (pages 4184–4200)

      Jia Wang, Huasheng Hong, Yuwu Jiang, Fei Chai and Xiao-Hai Yan

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20300

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      Key Points

      • A physical-biological coupled model for the TWS are developed for first time
      • Physical and biological effects on the nutrient fate in the TWS are discussed
      • Over half of DIN is utilized in the three main upwelling regions of the TWS
    14. On the structure of the Lofoten Basin Eddy (pages 4201–4212)

      H. Søiland and T. Rossby

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20301

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      Key Points

      • • The Lofoten Eddy is a small yet intense anticyclonic eddy
      • • Appears to be a permanent feature of the Lofoten Basin
      • • It is restricted to the deepest part of the Lofoten Basin
    15. Trends in the deep Southern Ocean (1958–2010): Implications for Antarctic Bottom Water properties and volume export (pages 4213–4227)

      Marina Azaneu, Rodrigo Kerr, Mauricio M. Mata and Carlos A. E. Garcia

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20303

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      Key Points

      • Antarctic dense shelf waters cooled and freshened during 1958-2010
      • AABW warmed and decreased in density over the same period
      • AABW volume decreased during the 1980s-2000s
    16. Ocean bottom pressure seasonal cycles and decadal trends from GRACE Release-05: Ocean circulation implications (pages 4228–4240)

      Gregory C. Johnson and Don P. Chambers

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20307

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      Key Points

      • Regional and global ocean mass seasonal cycles and trends are analyzed.
      • The N. Pacific, S. Atlantic and S. Indian gain mass relative to a net increase.
      • Mass changes spin up gyres in the Pacific, S. Indian, and S. Atlantic in winter.
    17. Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing (pages 4241–4255)

      Zhongping Lee, Chuanmin Hu, Shaoling Shang, Keping Du, Marlon Lewis, Robert Arnone and Robert Brewin

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20308

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      Key Points

      • semi-analytical Kd algorithm; Raman correction
      • Penetration UV-Visible radiation in ocean
      • Diurnal variation of diffuse attenuation coefficient
    18. Low frequency variability on the continental slope of the southern Weddell Sea (pages 4256–4272)

      Mari F. Jensen, Ilker Fer and Elin Darelius

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20309

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      Key Points

      • Weddell Sea continental slope is home to energetic oscillations at 35 h period.
      • The variability is identified as mode 1 barotropic coastal trapped waves.
      • Possible generation site is the Filchner Depression and the nearby ridges.
    19. Estimation of extreme sea levels along the Bangladesh coast due to storm surge and sea level rise using EEMD and EVA (pages 4273–4285)

      Han Soo Lee

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20310

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      Key Points

      • Extreme sea levels in Bangladesh are estimated using EEMD and EVA methods
      • Current non-linear trend of sea level rise is +4.46 mm/yr at Hiron Point (HP)
      • Return levels for 50- and 100-yr return periods are 1.66 m and 1.75 m at HP
    20. Model-simulated interannual variability of Lake Erie ice cover, circulation, and thermal structure in response to atmospheric forcing, 2003–2012 (pages 4286–4304)

      Ayumi Fujisaki, Jia Wang, Xuezhi Bai, George Leshkevich and Brent Lofgren

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20312

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      Key Points

      • Accelerated Lake Erie circulation in mild winters
      • Earlier onset of stratification in Lake Erie in mild winters
    21. Seasonal to interannual variations in the intensity and central position of the surface Kuroshio east of Taiwan (pages 4305–4316)

      Yi-Chia Hsin, Bo Qiu, Tzu-Ling Chiang and Chau-Ron Wu

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20323

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      Key Points

      • Seasonality of Kuroshio position/intensity is non-uniform/uniform meridionally
      • Interannually, Kuroshio intensifies with an offshore path during PDO warm phase
      • Relative intensity of cyclonic/anticyclonic eddies causes the interannual change
    22. Foraminiferal radiocarbon record of northeast Pacific decadal subsurface variability (pages 4317–4333)

      Lydia D. Roach, Christopher D. Charles, David B. Field and Thomas P. Guilderson

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20274

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      Key Points

      • Benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon follows bottom water density.
      • Decreases in radiocarbon correspond with NPGO positive phase.
      • Increases in radiocarbon occur following ENSO warm years.
    23. Estimating the Bowen ratio over the open and ice-covered ocean (pages 4334–4345)

      Edgar L Andreas, Rachel E. Jordan, Larry Mahrt and Dean Vickers

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20295

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      Key Points

      • We have 9000 eddy-covariance surface heat fluxes over sea ice and the open ocean
      • Though 9 combinations of sensible and latent heat flux are possible 3 dominate
      • We develop equations to predict the Bowen ratio from surface temperature
    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      On the time-mean state of ocean models and the properties of long range acoustic propagation (pages 4346–4362)

      B. D. Dushaw, P. F. Worcester, M. A. Dzieciuch and D. Menemenlis

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20325

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      Key Points

      • Acoustics tests the time-mean properties of the sound speed of ocean models.
      • Acoustic arrival patterns depend on the vertical structure of ocean models.
      • Acoustic data are useful constraints for ocean modeling and state estimation.
    25. Barrow Canyon volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes revealed by long-term mooring observations between 2000 and 2008 (pages 4363–4379)

      Motoyo Itoh, Shigeto Nishino, Yusuke Kawaguchi and Takashi Kikuchi

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20290

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      Key Points

      • Pacific water flux through the Barrow Canyon into the Arctic Ocean
    26. Directional short wind wave spectra derived from the sea surface photography (pages 4380–4394)

      M. V. Yurovskaya, V. A. Dulov, B. Chapron and V. N. Kudryavtsev

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20296

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      Key Points

      • New field measurements of 2D wavenumber short wind wave spectra are presented
      • Capillary waves are anisotropic and wind dependent, decimeter waves are not
      • On the basis of the data, a revision of existing spectrum model is performed
    27. Generation of baroclinic tides over an isolated underwater bank (pages 4395–4408)

      Vasiliy Vlasenko, Nataliya Stashchuk, Matthew R. Palmer and Mark E. Inall

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20304

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      Key Points

      • Modelling and observation of internal tides over an isolated bank
    28. Processes controlling upper-ocean heat content in Drake Passage (pages 4409–4423)

      Gordon R. Stephenson Jr., Sarah T. Gille and Janet Sprintall

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20315

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      Key Points

      • Upper-ocean heat content in Drake Passage examined using 16-year XBT timeseries.
      • Interannual variability of heat content linked to surface heat flux anomalies.
      • Eddies account for one third of variance in heat content anomalies above 400 m.
    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hindcast and validation of Hurricane Ike (2008) waves, forerunner, and storm surge (pages 4424–4460)

      M. E. Hope, J. J. Westerink, A. B. Kennedy, P. C. Kerr, J. C. Dietrich, C. Dawson, C. J. Bender, J. M. Smith, R. E. Jensen, M. Zijlema, L. H. Holthuijsen, R. A. Luettich Jr., M. D. Powell, V. J. Cardone, A. T. Cox, H. Pourtaheri, H. J. Roberts, J. H. Atkinson, S. Tanaka, H. J. Westerink and L. G. Westerink

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20314

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      Key Points

      • A synoptic history of Hurricane Ike is presented
      • A multitude of surge and circulation processes are identified and modeled
      • Qualitative and quantitative comparisons to recorded data is performed
    30. Propagation characteristics of coastally trapped waves on the Australian Continental Shelf (pages 4461–4473)

      Robert Woodham, Gary B. Brassington, Robin Robertson and Oscar Alves

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20317

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      Key Points

      • Coastally-trapped waves are investigated using tide gauge and model data
      • The waves propagate as continuous features around the Australian coast
      • Their amplitude is locally modulated by the width of the continental shelf
    31. Gulf Stream eddy characteristics in a high-resolution ocean model (pages 4474–4487)

      Dujuan Kang and Enrique N. Curchitser

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20318

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      Key Points

      • We perform a 50-year hindcast in NW Atlantic with a new implementation of ROMS.
      • We developed an eddy detection method and applied it to the model hindcast.
      • We analyzed the characteristics of the Gulf Stream mesoscale eddies.
    32. Observations and modeling of the diurnal SST cycle in the North and Baltic Seas (pages 4488–4503)

      I. Karagali and J. L. Høyer

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20320

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      Key Points

      • Evaluate diurnal variability from 1 year of satellite SSTs
      • Evaluate diurnal variability from 3 models using NWP fields
      • Compare modeled and satellite diurnal cycles
    33. Forcing mechanisms of heat content variations in the Yellow Sea (pages 4504–4513)

      Hao Wei, Chengyi Yuan, Youyu Lu, Zhihua Zhang and Xiaofan Luo

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20326

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      Key Points

      • 1. Local atmospheric forcing causes inter-annual variations of heat content.
      • 2. Winter temperature could be predicted by the East Asian Winter Monsoon.
    34. Development and evaluation of an Earth System Model with surface gravity waves (pages 4514–4524)

      Fangli Qiao, Zhenya Song, Ying Bao, Yajuan Song, Qi Shu, Chuanjiang Huang and Wei Zhao

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20327

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      Key Points

      • This is a try to include surface wave in earth system model
      • Surface wave is important in climate system
      • CMIP5 numerical experiments
    35. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago throughflow in a multiresolution global model: Model assessment and the driving mechanism of interannual variability (pages 4525–4541)

      Claudia Wekerle, Qiang Wang, Sergey Danilov, Thomas Jung and Jens Schröter

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20330

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      Key Points

      • Evaluation of a multi-resolution sea ice-ocean model with highly resolved CAA
      • CAA throughflow realistically represented in the model
      • Interannual variability of CAA volume transport driven by sea level gradient
    36. Wave breaking in developing and mature seas (pages 4542–4552)

      Johannes Gemmrich, Christopher J. Zappa, Michael L. Banner and Russel P. Morison

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20334

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      Key Points

      • Velocity scale of breaking dissipation peak decreases with increasing wave age
      • Breaking spectrum falls off slower than predicted by Phillips (1985) framework
      • Breaking strength of 4.2 (+/− 1.8) x 10−5 for mature seas was directly measured
    37. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer (pages 4553–4569)

      J. Prytherch, J. T. Farrar and R. A. Weller

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20360

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      Key Points

      • 4700 days diurnal warm layer observations from 5 fixed moorings are described.
      • Observations are compared with modeled surface warming and velocity shear.
      • A physical model is used to provide insight into diurnal warm layer dynamics.
    38. Precise comparisons of bottom-pressure and altimetric ocean tides (pages 4570–4584)

      R. D. Ray

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20336

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      Key Points

      • A new dataset of pelagic tide estimates is compiled from 151 seafloor sites.
      • The new data form a useful tool for testing deep-ocean tide models.
      • Data are sufficiently precise to reveal atmospheric and body-tide effects.
    39. Wind-driven exchanges between two basins: Some topographic and latitudinal effects (pages 4585–4599)

      Jiayan Yang, Xiaopei Lin and Dexing Wu

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20333

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      Key Points

      • Flows between the open ocean and marginal sea is restricted by topography
      • Island rule does not apply to flows through shallow channels
      • friction promotes flows over sill
    40. Atmospheric forcing intensifies the effects of regional ocean warming on reef-scale temperature anomalies during a coral bleaching event (pages 4600–4616)

      Zhenlin Zhang, James Falter, Ryan Lowe, Greg Ivey and Malcolm McCulloch

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20338

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      Key Points

      • Difference in temperature was a function of net heat flux and residence time
      • Diurnal variations in temperature depended on diurnal heat flux fluctuation
      • local heating exacerbated thermal stress caused by regional ocean warming
    41. Influence of the Orinoco River on the primary production of eastern Caribbean surface waters (pages 4617–4632)

      Ramón López, José M. López, Julio Morell, Jorge E. Corredor and Carlos E. Del Castillo

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20342

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      Key Points

      • River plume increases primary production of eastern Caribbean waters.
      • Climate fluctuations are observed in remote sensed primary production.
      • River plume coverage and seasonality influences primary production gradients.
    42. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      U.S. IOOS coastal and ocean modeling testbed: Evaluation of tide, wave, and hurricane surge response sensitivities to mesh resolution and friction in the Gulf of Mexico (pages 4633–4661)

      P. C. Kerr, R. C. Martyr, A. S. Donahue, M. E. Hope, J. J. Westerink, R. A. Luettich Jr., A. B. Kennedy, J. C. Dietrich, C. Dawson and H. J. Westerink

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20305

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      Key Points

      • 1) Resolution requirements are less stringent for tides and surge at the coast
      • 2) Coarser resolution decreases attenuation and therefore inland tidal accuracy
      • 3) Non-linear advection and waves are important contributors to storm surge
    43. Turbulent mixing efficiency at an energetic ocean site (pages 4662–4672)

      C. E. Bluteau, N. L. Jones and G. N. Ivey

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20292

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      Key Points

      • More than one turbulent parameter is required to predict mixing
      • Osborn's model with a constant mixing efficiency over-predicts mixing
      • The largest turbulent overturns must be described generally to predict mixing
    44. Bathymetry correction using an adjoint component of a coupled nearshore wave-circulation model: Tests with synthetic velocity data (pages 4673–4688)

      Alexander L. Kurapov and H. Tuba Özkan-Haller

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20306

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      Key Points

      • Nearshore bathymetry can be corrected assimilating wave-averaged flow velocities
      • The adjoint component of a coupled wave-circulation model developed and utilized
      • Contributions of the wave and circulation models to correction are separated
    45. Degradation of an internal wave beam by parametric subharmonic instability in an upper ocean pycnocline (pages 4689–4698)

      B. Gayen and S. Sarkar

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20321

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      Key Points

      • First numerical evidence of PSI in pycnocline/wave beam.
      • PSI could cause beam degradation after surface bounce in HOME data.
      • PSI occurs when the pycnocline is not too thin relative to beam thickness.
    46. Hydrographic changes in the Lincoln Sea in the Arctic Ocean with focus on an upper ocean freshwater anomaly between 2007 and 2010 (pages 4699–4715)

      L. de Steur, M. Steele, E. Hansen, J. Morison, I. Polyakov, S. M. Olsen, H. Melling, F. A. McLaughlin, R. Kwok, W. M. Smethie Jr. and P. Schlosser

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20341

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      Key Points

      • A freshwater anomaly was observed in the Lincoln Sea between 2007–2010
      • The origin of the freshwater can be identified through two different pathways
      • The fresh anomaly in the Lincoln Sea had completely exited the Arctic by 2011
    47. Eddy energy sources and sinks in the South China Sea (pages 4716–4726)

      Haiyuan Yang, Lixin Wu, Hailong Liu and Yongqiang Yu

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20343

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      Key Points

      • Both the eddy energy sources and sinks show western intensification
      • APE releasing is found to be the most important eddy energy source
      • Most of the generated energy is mainly balanced by the turbulent processes
    48. Residual circulation in western Long Island Sound (pages 4727–4745)

      Diane Bennett Fribance, James O'Donnell and Adam Houk

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20329

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      Key Points

      • Residual structure across western LIS during light wind is described
      • Measurements indicate a net volume flux towards the East River
      • Advection of momentum is important along-estuary in WLIS
    49. Mercury uptake within an ice algal community during the spring bloom in first-year Arctic sea ice (pages 4746–4754)

      Alexis Burt, Feiyue Wang, Monika Pućko, Christopher-John Mundy, Michel Gosselin, Benoît Philippe, Michel Poulin, Jean-Éric Tremblay and Gary A. Stern

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20380

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      Key Points

      • Mercury in ice algae originates from brine and seawater
      • Mercury undergoes biomass dilution in algae during spring bloom
      • Once bound by algae, mercury can undergo spatial or trophic transfer

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