Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

Cover image for Vol. 119 Issue 2

February 2014

Volume 119, Issue 2

Pages i–vi, 615–1515

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Author's Preface to a Special Collection
    4. Research Articles
    5. Commentary
    1. Issue Information (pages i–vi)

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20347

  2. Author's Preface to a Special Collection

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Author's Preface to a Special Collection
    4. Research Articles
    5. Commentary
    1. Coherent intraseasonal oceanic variations in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean and in the Lombok and Ombai Straits from observations and a high-resolution OGCM (pages 615–630)

      Iskhaq Iskandar, Yukio Masumoto, Keisuke Mizuno, Hideharu Sasaki, Azhar K. Affandi, Dedi Setiabudidaya and Fadli Syamsuddin

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009592

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      Key Point

      • Remote and local forcing generate intrasesoanal variation in the ITF region
  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Author's Preface to a Special Collection
    4. Research Articles
    5. Commentary
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Oceanic heat delivery via Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord to the south-east Greenland ice sheet (pages 631–645)

      Mark E. Inall, Tavi Murray, Finlo R. Cottier, Kilian Scharrer, Timothy J. Boyd, Karen J. Heywood and Suzanne L. Bevan

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009295

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      Key Points

      • Ocean heat flux toward the ice sheet is 10 times previously reported value
      • Heat delivered to the calving front is equivalent to ~10 m per day melt
      • Polar surface waters melted a substantial volume of ice within the fjord
    2. Impact of physical processes on the seasonal distribution of the fugacity of CO2 in the western tropical Atlantic (pages 646–663)

      Nathalie Lefèvre, Domingos F. Urbano, Francis Gallois and Denis Diverrès

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009248

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      Key Points

      • Seasonal CO2 maps from synoptic cruises are produced
      • Surface fCO2 is mainly driven by temperature and salinity
      • The equatorial source of CO2 is decreasing or constant over time
    3. Temporal and spatial evolution of wave-induced ripple geometry: Regular versus irregular ripples (pages 664–688)

      Timothy Robert Nelson and George Voulgaris

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009020

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      Key Points

      • Changes in wave direction delays ripple transition to equilibrium conditions
      • Spectrum of the seabed acoustic images used to quantify ripple irregularity
      • Irregularity depends on seabed history and deviation from equilibrium
    4. Observations of flow variability through the Kerama Gap between the East China Sea and the Northwestern Pacific (pages 689–703)

      Hanna Na, Mark Wimbush, Jae-Hun Park, Hirohiko Nakamura and Ayako Nishina

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008899

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      Key Points

      • Mean flow through the Kerama Gap is 2 Sv into the East China Sea
      • Variability of subtidal Kerama Gap flow is larger than the mean
      • This variability is related to the arrival of mesoscale eddies from the east
    5. Large-scale impact of Saharan dust on the North Atlantic Ocean circulation (pages 704–730)

      N. Serra, N. Martínez Avellaneda and D. Stammer

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009274

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      Key Points

      • Saharan dust induced forcing is simulated by idealized radiation anomalies
      • Significant impacts on North Atlantic gyre and overturning circulations
    6. A two-way nested simulation of the oceanic circulation in the Southwestern Atlantic (pages 731–756)

      Vincent Combes and Ricardo P. Matano

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009498

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      Key Points

      • Two-way nested experiment of the Southwest Atlantic circulation
      • Evaluate the sensitivity of the circulation to the wind/bottom stress forcings
      • Describe the seasonal variability of the SW Atlantic
    7. Optical measurements of small deeply penetrating bubble populations generated by breaking waves in the Southern Ocean (pages 757–776)

      Kaylan Randolph, Heidi M. Dierssen, Michael Twardowski, Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen and Christopher J. Zappa

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009227

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      Key Points

      • Bubble size distributions (0.5–60 μm radius) were measured during wave breaking
      • Bubbles ≤30 μm in radius supplied ∼30% of the void fraction at 4 m depth
      • Bubble populations were presented in the context of wind and wave conditions
    8. Impacts of canonical and Modoki El Niño on tropical Atlantic SST (pages 777–789)

      Dillon J. Amaya and Gregory R. Foltz

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009476

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      Key Points

      • Canonical El Niño causes warming in tropical N. Atl. with peak in MAM
      • Response to Modoki is weaker overall and includes cooling in the NE tropical Atlantic
      • Difference due to stronger PNA pattern and stronger eq Kelvin wave for canonical
    9. Deep water circulation in the Luzon Strait (pages 790–804)

      Wei Zhao, Chun Zhou, Jiwei Tian, Qingxuan Yang, Bin Wang, Lingling Xie and Tangdong Qu

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009587

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      Key Points

      • Deep circulation in the Luzon Strait is studied with observation and model
      • Pathway and transport of the deep circulation are investigated
      • Mixing is revealed to play a key role in regulating the deep circulation
    10. Subseasonal variations in salinity and barrier-layer thickness in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean (pages 805–823)

      Kyla Drushka, Janet Sprintall and Sarah T. Gille

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009422

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      Key Points

      • MJO excites systematic anomalies in MLD but not BLT
      • Zonal advection dominates MJO salinity anomalies at 90°E, 0°N
      • When the barrier layer is thin, the MJO excites stronger SST anomalies
    11. On the spatial structure and temporal variability of poleward transport between Scotland and Greenland (pages 824–841)

      L. Chafik, T. Rossby and C. Schrum

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009287

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      Key Points

      • Enormous advantage of repeat current sampling from a vessel in regular traffic
      • The RR is an effective separator of flow toward the Nordic and Labrador Seas
      • A long-term decrease in transport appears to be underway
    12. The anisotropic scattering coefficient of sea ice (pages 842–855)

      Christian Katlein, Marcel Nicolaus and Chris Petrich

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009502

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      Key Points

      • Anisotropic scattering coefficients in sea ice influence radiance distribution
      • Anisotropic distribution of under-ice radiance causes deeper light penetration
      • Isotropic assumptions lead to significant errors in radiation models
    13. A physical model of sea wave period from altimeter data (pages 856–869)

      S. I. Badulin

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009336

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      Key Points

      • A physical model for sea wave period from altimeter data is presented
      • The resulting formula for wave period does not contain any empirical parameters
      • Relevance of the new model is shown in a case study
    14. A simple turbulence model for stably stratified wall-bounded flows (pages 870–880)

      F. Karimpour and S. K. Venayagamoorthy

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009332

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      Key Points

      • A new formulation for the turbulent Prandtl number is proposed
      • Performance of the proposed Prt is evaluated to highlight its usefulness
      • Our findings will be useful for modeling geophysical flows
    15. An exceptional anticyclonic eddy in the South China Sea in 2010 (pages 881–897)

      Xiaoqing Chu, Huijie Xue, Yiquan Qi, Gengxin Chen, Qingwen Mao, Dongxiao Wang and Fei Chai

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009314

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      Key Points

      • Three-dimensional structure and evolution of an exceptional eddy
      • Climate variability on the generation and evolution of the strong eddy
      • Eddy-mean flow interaction in the SCS western boundary
    16. Driven around the bend: Spatial evolution and controls on the orientation of helical bend flow in a natural submarine gravity current (pages 898–913)

      E. J. Sumner, J. Peakall, R. M. Dorrell, D. R. Parsons, S. E. Darby, R. B. Wynn, S. D. McPhail, J. Perrett, A. Webb and D. White

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009008

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      Key Points

      • First data of the 3-D velocity and density structure of a submarine gravity flow
      • Internal pressure gradients, not centrifugal forces control flow structure
      • Flow stratification and downstream advection must be included in future models
    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Water level effects on breaking wave setup for Pacific Island fringing reefs (pages 914–932)

      J. M. Becker, M. A. Merrifield and M. Ford

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009373

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      Key Points

      • Wave setup on fringing reefs exhibits tidal dependence
      • The tidal dependence is due in part to a variable ratio of breaking wave height to water depth
      • Water level changes in general are expected to have a similar effect on setup
    18. Ocean chlorophyll response to two types of El Niño events in an ocean-biogeochemical coupled model (pages 933–952)

      Kie-Woung Lee, Sang-Wook Yeh, Jong-Seong Kug and Jong-Yeon Park

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009050

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      Key Points

      • Chlorophyll response to El Nino using a coupled model
      • Different spatial-temporal response of chlorophyll for two types of El Nino
      • Identification of physical factors for chlorophyll concentration
    19. Regional impact of submarine canyons during seasonal upwelling (pages 953–975)

      Thomas P. Connolly and Barbara M. Hickey

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009452

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      Key Points

      • Submarine canyons are associated with deep (140–260 m) sources of upwelled water
      • Canyon upwelling strength varies with along-shelf velocity at the outer shelf
      • Canyon upwelling influences near-bottom water on shelf-wide and regional scales
    20. Energy dissipation in viscous-plastic sea-ice models (pages 976–994)

      Amélie Bouchat and Bruno Tremblay

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009436

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      Key Point

      • Energy dissipated in the nonphysical viscous deformations is negligible
    21. Modeling ice-ocean interaction in ice-shelf crevasses (pages 995–1008)

      James R. Jordan, Paul R. Holland, Adrian Jenkins, Matthew D. Piggott and Satoshi Kimura

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009208

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      Key Points

      • Freezing in an ice-shelf crevasse sets up an unstable overturning circulation
      • Frazil ice is the main factor in the freeze rate within basal crevasses
      • There is a nonlinear relationship between inflow temperature and freeze rate
    22. Impact of Barents Sea winter air-sea exchanges on Fram Strait dense water transport (pages 1009–1021)

      Bengamin I. Moat, Simon A. Josey and Bablu Sinha

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009220

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      Key Points

      • Impacts of extreme Barents Sea surface exchanges examined using climate model
      • Barents Sea surface density gain increases Fram Strait southward transport
      • Fram Strait dense water colder (fresher) by up to 0.5°C (0.05)
    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Relating Lagrangian and Eulerian horizontal eddy statistics in the surfzone (pages 1022–1037)

      Matthew S. Spydell, Falk Feddersen, R. T. Guza and Jamie MacMahan

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009415

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      Key Points

      • Drifters and current meters sample the same surfzone eddies
      • Surfzone Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics are related by theory
      • Surfzone particle dynamics are explored
    24. Experimental observations of the splitting of a gravity current at a density step in a stratified water body (pages 1038–1053)

      A. Cortés, F. J. Rueda and M. G. Wells

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009304

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      Key Points

      • The behavior of gravity currents in two-layered columns is analyzed
      • One or two intrusions form depending on Froude and Richardson numbers
      • Flux partitioning between intrusions depends on gravity current properties
    25. Cyclogeostrophic balance in the Mozambique Channel (pages 1054–1067)

      Pierrick Penven, Issufo Halo, Stéphane Pous and Louis Marié

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009528

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      Key Points

      • The centrifugal force is important in Mozambique Channel rings
      • We propose to include inertia when deriving currents from sea surface height
      • Inclusion of inertia results in a net improvement when computing ocean currents
    26. Eddies and an extreme water mass anomaly observed in the eastern south Pacific at the Stratus mooring (pages 1068–1083)

      Lothar Stramma, Robert A. Weller, Rena Czeschel and Sebastien Bigorre

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009470

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      Key Points

      • Anticyclonic eddy carried low oxygen water from the Chilean shelf to ∼20°S, 85.5°W
      • Water mass in the eddy was isolated for about 11 months
      • Sea surface height anomaly is not sufficient to specify eddy strength
    27. Determination of particulate organic carbon sources to the surface mixed layer of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (pages 1084–1102)

      Kristina A. Brown, Fiona McLaughlin, Philippe D. Tortell, Diana E. Varela, Michiyo Yamamoto-Kawai, Brian Hunt and Roger Francois

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009197

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      Key Points

      • Surface ocean particulate organic carbon was sampled throughout the Canada Basin
      • Surface stable isotope signatures differed between the central basin and shelf
      • Russian rivers are a source of organic carbon to the surface Canada Basin
    28. Interferometry of infragravity waves off New Zealand (pages 1103–1122)

      Oleg A. Godin, Nikolay A. Zabotin, Anne F. Sheehan and John A. Collins

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009395

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      Key Points

      • Background IGWs form a diffuse random anisotropic wavefield off New Zealand
      • Compressed cross-correlation function technique enhances wave interferometry
      • Interferometry reveals seafloor interaction, spectra, and directionality of IGWs
    29. Wind forced variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of Africa between 1993 and 2010 (pages 1123–1145)

      Ricardo Domingues, Gustavo Goni, Sebastiaan Swart and Shenfu Dong

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008908

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      Key Points

      • Local atmospheric variability modulates the structure of the ACC south of Africa
      • Positive SAM is linked with a warmer ACC and lower (higher) SAF (APF) transport
      • The SAF (APF) location south of Africa is not linked to the local wind forcing
    30. Intensification and variability of the confluence of subtropical and subantarctic boundary currents east of New Zealand (pages 1146–1160)

      D. Fernandez, M. Bowen and L. Carter

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009153

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      Key Points

      • Fronts and eddies in the confluence have intensified over last 20 years
      • Significant correlation between SSH gradients and EKE
      • Intensification trend consistent with increasing boundary current transports
    31. The Indonesian Throughflow response to Indo-Pacific climate variability (pages 1161–1175)

      Janet Sprintall and Adèle Révelard

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009533

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      Key Points

      • A proxy 18 year Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) transport time series is developed
      • Increased ITF transport related to enhanced Pacific tradewinds since early 1990s
      • Indian Ocean dynamics dominate Pacific ENSO variability in ITF outflow passages
    32. Pulsed, cross-shelf export of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon to the Gulf of Mexico (pages 1176–1194)

      Cédric G. Fichot, Steven E. Lohrenz and Ronald Benner

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009424

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      Key Points

      • Surface tDOC concentrations are retrieved using ocean-color remote sensing
      • tDOC cross-shelf export is sporadic and exhibits large interannual variability
      • tDOC cross-shelf export is enhanced during years of anomalously high discharge
    33. Evolution of an oceanic anticyclone in the lee of Madeira Island: In situ and remote sensing survey (pages 1195–1216)

      Rui M. A. Caldeira, Alexandre Stegner, Xavier Couvelard, Isabel B. Araújo, Pierre Testor and Alvaro Lorenzo

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009493

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      Key Points

      • First sampling of a mesoscale anticyclone lee of Madeira
      • Wind forced and long-term residence time
      • Intrathermocline eddy which might contribute to the Madeira MODE water
    34. Impact of wind waves on the air-sea fluxes: A coupled model (pages 1217–1236)

      V. Kudryavtsev, B. Chapron and V. Makin

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009412

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      Key Point

      • New wind-over-wave-coupling model
    35. Decadal variations of Pacific North Equatorial Current bifurcation from multiple ocean products (pages 1237–1256)

      Fangguo Zhai, Qingye Wang, Fujun Wang and Dunxin Hu

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009692

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      Key Points

      • Decadal variations of Pacific NEC bifurcation over last six decades
      • Gyre anomalies form in the northwestern tropical Pacific
      • Oceanic variations are related to TPDV
    36. Geostrophic and ageostrophic circulation of a shallow anticyclonic eddy off Cape Bojador (pages 1257–1270)

      Simón Ruiz, Josep L. Pelegrí, Mikhail Emelianov, Ananda Pascual and Evan Mason

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009169

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      Key Points

      • Vertical velocities in the upper ocean from quasi-geostrophic theory
      • Description of mesoscale eddy in the Upwelling Canary Region
      • Multiplatform experiment combining in situ and remote sensing observations
    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Deterioration of perennial sea ice in the Beaufort Gyre from 2003 to 2012 and its impact on the oceanic freshwater cycle (pages 1271–1305)

      R. A. Krishfield, A. Proshutinsky, K. Tateyama, W. J. Williams, E. C. Carmack, F. A. McLaughlin and M.-L. Timmermans

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008999

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      Key Points

      • Sea ice in the Beaufort Gyre became thinner and largely homogenous after 2007
      • Total summer freshwater increased until 2010 and has decreased slightly since
      • Thick sea ice declined from nearly 10 to 4% of the total summer freshwater budget
    38. Lagrangian simulations and interannual variability of anchovy egg and larva dispersal in the Sicily Channel (pages 1306–1323)

      Luigi Palatella, Francesco Bignami, Federico Falcini, Guglielmo Lacorata, Alessandra S. Lanotte and Rosalia Santoleri

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009384

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      Key Points

      • Lagrangian dispersion cannot be addressed on mean velocity fields only
      • Interannual variability of dispersion is very high
      • Kinematic modeling helps to describe the small-scale dispersion
    39. Physical modeling of tidal resonance in a submarine canyon (pages 1324–1343)

      K. E. Le Souëf and S. E. Allen

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009612

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      Key Points

      • Tidal resonance was reproduced in laboratory model of the Gully, Nova Scotia
      • Resonance caused surges of dense water onto shelf either side of canyon
      • A resonance curve was generated for the Gully
    40. Wave-induced light field fluctuations in measured irradiance depth profiles: A wavelet analysis (pages 1344–1364)

      Jianwei Wei, Marlon R. Lewis, Ronnie Van Dommelen, Christopher J. Zappa and Michael S. Twardowski

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009572

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      Key Points

      • Irradiance depth profiles can be decomposed using wavelet method
      • Light field statistics can be quantified using irradiance depth profiles
      • Depth change of irradiance statistics can be derived from its depth profiles
    41. Pacific-to-Indian Ocean connectivity: Tasman leakage, Indonesian Throughflow, and the role of ENSO (pages 1365–1382)

      Erik van Sebille, Janet Sprintall, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Alex Sen Gupta, Agus Santoso, Matthew H. England, Arne Biastoch and Claus W. Böning

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009525

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      Key Points

      • Pacific and Indian Oceans are connected through ITF and Tasman leakage
      • Both pathways are important for global circulation but are not correlated
      • A Lagrangian analysis of pathways finds effect of ENSO in Archipelago
    42. Finescale parameterizations of turbulent dissipation (pages 1383–1419)

      Kurt L. Polzin, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, Tycho N. Huussen, Bernadette M. Sloyan and Stephanie Waterman

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008979

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      Key Points

      • Basic physics of internal wave interactions clarified
      • Advice given on internally consistent estimates
      • Examples of biases discussed
    43. Caspian Sea surface circulation variability inferred from satellite altimeter and sea surface temperature (pages 1420–1430)

      Murat Gunduz

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009558

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      Key Points

      • Ocean model derived field was combined with the satellite-derived observations
      • The surface circulation characteristics of the Caspian Sea is investigated
      • Interannual variability of the surface circulation of the Caspian is examined
    44. A mechanism for the latitudinal dependence of peak-spectrum sea surface height variability (pages 1431–1444)

      Xiaopei Lin, Yuqi Yin, Ping Zhai and Jiayan Yang

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009642

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      Key Points

      • SSH peaks at a certain frequency at each latitudinal band
      • The linear wave near critical frequency causes the SSH peaks in low latitudes
      • Eddies play a more important role in SSH variability in high latitudes
    45. Process modeling studies of physical mechanisms of the formation of an anticyclonic eddy in the central Red Sea (pages 1445–1464)

      Changsheng Chen, Ruixiang Li, Larry Pratt, Richard Limeburner, Robert C. Beardsley, Amy Bower, Houshuo Jiang, Yasser Abualnaja, Qichun Xu, Huichan Lin, Xuehai Liu, Jian Lan and Taewan Kim

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009351

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      Key Points

      • Surface drifters detected an anticyclonic eddy in the central Red Sea
      • The model successfully reproduced the observed eddy
      • The eddy formed as geostrophic adjustment to seasonal buoyancy forcing
    46. Deep-water dynamics and boundary mixing in a nontidal stratified basin: A modeling study of the Baltic Sea (pages 1465–1487)

      Peter L. Holtermann, Hans Burchard, Ulf Gräwe, Knut Klingbeil and Lars Umlauf

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009483

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      Key Points

      • Successful remodeling of interior/boundary mixing processes
      • Dominant subinertial motion is a double-gyre structured topographic wave
      • Passive tracer mixing study using an ensemble experiment
    47. Usable solar radiation and its attenuation in the upper water column (pages 1488–1497)

      Zhongping Lee, Shaoling Shang, Keping Du, Jianwei Wei and Robert Arnone

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009507

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      Key Points

      • A new radiometric term (USR) is defined
      • Attenuation of USR is nearly constant vertically for oceanic waters
      • USR and phytoplankton absorption speed the calculation of PUR
    48. Frontogenesis and frontolysis of the subpolar front in the surface mixed layer of the Japan Sea (pages 1498–1509)

      Ning Zhao, Atsuyoshi Manda and Zhen Han

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009419

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      Key Points

      • The subpolar front (SPF) strengthens from October to December and weakens from January
      • Horizontal advection is the dominant factor that strengthens the SPF
      • Ekman advection is important for frontogenesis but it plays a secondary role
  4. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Author's Preface to a Special Collection
    4. Research Articles
    5. Commentary

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