SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anguelova, M. D., and F. Webster (2006), Whitecap coverage from satellite measurements: A first step towards modeling the variability of ocean whitecaps, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C03,017.
  • Bates, T. S., et al. (2006), Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: Estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and transport modeling, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 16571732.
  • Blanchard, D. C. (1963), The electrification of the atmosphere by particles from bubbles in the sea, Prog. Oceanogr., 1, 73202.
  • Carslaw, K. S., O. Boucher, D. V. Spracklen, G. W. Mann, J. G. L. Rae, S. Woodward, and M. Kulmala (2010), A review of natural aerosol interactions and feedbacks within the Earth system, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 17011737.
  • Collins, W. D., P. J. Rasch, B. A. Boville, J. J. Hack, J. R. McCaa, D. L. Williamson, B. P. Briegleb, C. M. Bitz, S.-J. Lin, and M. Zhang (2006), The Formulation and atmospheric simulation of the Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 (CAM3), J. Climate, 19, 21442161.
  • de Leeuw, G., E. L. Andreas, M. D. Anguelova, C. W. Fairall, E. R. Lewis, C. D. ODowd, M. Schulz, and S. E. Schwartz (2011), Production flux of sea spray aerosol, Rev. Geophys., 49(RG2001), 349.
  • Fan, T., and O. B. Toon (2011), Modeling sea-salt aerosol in a coupled climate and sectional microphysical model: mass, optical depth and number concentration, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 45874610, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4587-2011.
  • Forster, P. M., et al. (2007), Radiative Forcing of Climate Change in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, chap. 6, pp. 129234, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • Glantz, P., K. J. Noone, and S. R. Osborne (2003), Scavenging efficiencies of aerosol particles in marine stratocumulus and cumulus clouds, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 13291350.
  • Hegg, D. A., L. F. Radke, and P. V. Hobbs (1991), Measurements of Aitken nuclei and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine atmosphere and their relation to the DMS-cloud-climate hypothesis, J. Geophys. Res., 96(D10), 18,72718,733.
  • Heintzenberg, J., D. Covert, and R. Van Dingenen (2000), Size distribution and chemical composition of marine aerosols: a compilation and review, Tellus B, 52B, 11041122.
  • Hultin, K. A. H., E. D. Nilsson, R. Krejci, E. M. Mårtensson, M. Ehn, Å. Hagström, and G. de Leeuw (2010), In situ laboratory sea spray production during the Marine Aerosol Production 2006 cruise on the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D06,201, doi:10.1029/2009JD012522.
  • Iversen, T., and Ø. Seland (2002), A scheme for process-tagged SO_4 and BC aerosols in NCAR CCM3: Validation and sensitivity to cloud processes, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D24), 4751, doi:10.1029/2001JD000885.
  • Iversen, T., and Ø. Seland (2003), Correction to “A scheme for process tagged SO4 and BC aerosols in NCAR-CCM3: Validation and sensitivity to cloud processes”, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 4502, doi:10.1029/2003JD003840.
  • Jaegle, L., P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, M. A. Alexander, and J.-T. Lin (2011), Global distribution of sea salt aerosols: new constraints from in situ and remote sensing observationsLin, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 31373157, doi:10.5194/acp-11-3137-2011.
  • Kinne, S., et al. (2006), An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 18151834.
  • Kirkevåg, A., and T. Iversen (2002), Global direct radiative forcing by process-parameterized aerosol optical properties, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 4433, doi:10.1029/2001JD000886.
  • Kirkevåg, A., et al. (2012), Aerosol-climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model - NorESM, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 5, 187.
  • Koch, D., et al. (2009), Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 90019026.
  • Korhonen, H., K. S. Carslaw, P. M. Forster, S. Mikkonen, N. D. Gordon, and H. Kokkola (2010), Aerosol climate feedback due to decadal increases in Southern Hemisphere wind speeds, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L02,805, doi:10.1029/2009GL041320.
  • Lamarque, J.-F., G. P. Kyle, M. Meinshausen, K. Riahi, S. J. Smith, D. P. van Vuuren, A. J. Conley, and F. Vitt (2011), Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways yRiahi, Clim. Chang., 109, 191212, doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0155-0.
  • Lambert, S. J., and G. J. Boer (2001), CMIP1 evaluation and intercomparison of coupled climate models, Climate Dyn., 17, 83106, doi:10.1007/PL00013736.
  • Latham, J., and M. H. Smith (1990), Effect on global warming of wind-dependent aerosol generation at the ocean surface, Nature, 347, 372373.
  • Lewis, E. R., and S. E. Schwartz (2004), Sea salt aerosol production: mechanisms, methods, measurements and models - a critical review, in Geophysical monograph Vol. 152, American Geophysical Union, Washington DC.
  • Liu, X., J. Penner, B. Das, D. Bergmann, J. M. Rodriguez, S. Strahan, M. Wang, and Y. Feng (2007), Uncertainties in global aerosol simulations: Assessment using three meteorological data sets, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11,212.
  • Lohmann, U., and J. Feichter (2005), Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 715737.
  • Mahowald, N. M., J.-F. Lamarque, X. X. Tie, and E. Wolff (2006), Sea-salt aerosol response to climate change: Last Glacial Maximum, preindustrial, and doubled carbon dioxide climates, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05,303, doi:10.1029/2005JD006459.
  • Mårtensson, E. M., E. D. Nilsson, G. D. Leeuw, L. H. Cohen, and H.-C. Hansson (2003), Laboratory simulations and parameterization of the primary marine aerosol production, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D9), 4297, doi:10.1029/2002JD002263.
  • Meehl, G. A., C. Covey, T. Delworth, M. Latif, B. McAvany, J. F. B. Mitchell, R. J. Stouffer, and K. E. Taylor (2007a), The WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset: A new era in climate changte research, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 88, 13831394.
  • Meehl, G. A., et al. (2007b), Global Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, chap. 10, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • Monahan, E. C., D. E. Spiel, and K. L. Davidson (1986), A model of marine aerosol generation via whitecaps and wave disruption, in Oceanic Whitecaps, edited by E. C. Monahan and MacNiochaill, pp. 167193, D. Reidel.
  • Nakicenovic, N., et al. (2000), Special report on emissions scenarios: a special report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.
  • Nilsson, E. D., K. A. H. Hultin, E. M. Mårtensson, Å. Hagström, K. Rosman, and R. Krejci (2010), Baltic sea spray emissions: in-situ eddy covariance fluxes v.s. simulated tank sea spray, in Primary marine aerosol production studies using bubble bursting experiments, PhD thesis, K. A. H. Hultin, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University.
  • Norris, S. J., I. M. Brooks, M. K. Hill, B. J. Brooks, M. H. Smith, and D. A. Sproson (2012), Eddy covariance measurements of the sea spray flux over the open ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D07,210, doi:10.1029/2011JD016549.
  • Penner, J. E., J. Quaas, T. Storelvmo, T. Takemura, O. Boucher, H. Guo, A. Kirkevåg, J. E. Kristjansson, and Ø. Seland (2006), Model intercomparison of indirect aerosol effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 33913405.
  • Penner, J. E., et al. (2001), Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects, in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by J. T. Houghton, pp. 289348, Cambridge University Press.
  • Pierce, J. R., and P. J. Adams (2006), Global evaluation of CCN formation by direct emission of sea salt and growth of ultrafine sea salt, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D06,203, doi:10.1029/2005JD006186.
  • Quaas, J., O. Boucher, A. Jones, G. P. Weedon, J. Kieser, and H. Joos (2009), Exploiting the weekly cycle as observed over Europe to analyse aerosol indirect effects in two climate models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 84938501.
  • Quinn, P. K., D. Coffman, V. Kapustin, T. S. Bates, and D. Covert (1998), Aerosol optical properties in the marine boundary layer during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) and the underlying chemical and physical aerosol propertiescoff, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D13), 16,54716,563, doi:10.1029/97JD02345.
  • Schulz, M., et al. (2006), Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the AeroCom present-day and pre-industrial simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 52255246.
  • Seinfield, J. H., and S. N. Pandis (2006), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics - From Air Pollution to Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons.
  • Seland, Ø., T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, and T. Storelvmo (2008), Aerosol-climate interactions in the CAM-Oslo atmospheric GCM and investigation of associated basic shortcomings, Tellus, 60A, 459491, doi:10.1111/j.1600.
  • Slingo, A. (1990), Sensitivity of the Earth's radiation budget to changes in low clouds, Nature, 343, 4951.
  • Son, S.-W., L. M. Polvani, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, R. Garcia, D. Kinnison, S. Pawson, E. Rozanov, T. G. Shepherd, and K. Shibata (2008), The Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Recovery on the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Jet, Science, 320, 14861489, doi:10.1126/science.1155939.
  • Stubenrauch, C. J., S. Cros, N. Lamquin, R. Armante, A. Chedin, C. Crevoisier, and N. A. Scott (2008), Cloud properties from AIRS and evaluation with CALIPSO, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00A10, doi:10.0129/2008JD009928.
  • Stubenrauch, C. J., S. Cros, A. Guignard, and N. Lamquin (2010), A 6-year global cloud climatology from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder AIRS and a statistical analysis in synergy with CALIPSO and CloudSat, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 71977214, doi:10.5194/acp-10-7197-2010.
  • Tebaldi, C., and R. Knutti (2007), The use of the multi-model ensemble in probabilistic climate projections, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 365, 20532075, doi:10.1098/rsta.2007.2076.
  • Textor, C., et al. (2006), Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 17771813.
  • Tsyro, S., W. Aas, J. Soares, M. Sofiev, H. Berge, and G. Spindler (2011), Modelling of sea salt concentrations over Europe: key uncertainties and comparison with observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10,36710,388, doi:10.5194/acp-11-10367-2011.
  • Twomey, S. (1977), The influence of pollution of the shortwave albedo of clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 11491152.
  • Uppala, S., et al. (2005), The ERA-40 reanalysis, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 29613211, doi:10.1256/qj.04.176.
  • Yin, J. (2005), A Consistent Poleward Shift of the Storm Tracks in Simulations of 21st Century Climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18,701, doi:10.1029/2005GL023684.