SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Amman, C. (1998), On the applicability of relaxed eddy accumulation and common methods for measuring trace gas surface fluxes, Ph. D. Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
  • Arnts, R. R. (2008), Reduction of biogenic VOC sampling losses from ozone via trans-2-butene addition, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42(20), 76637669, DOI: 10.1021/es050440w.
  • Arnts, R. R. (2010), Evaluation of adsorbent sampling tube materials and adsorbents for analysis of volatile biogenic organic compounds, Atmos. Environ., 44(12), 15791584, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.01.004.
  • Atkinson, R. (1997), Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of volatile organic compounds: 1. Alkanes and Alkenes, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 26(2), 215290.
  • Atkinson, R., and W. P. L. Carter (1984), Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reactions of ozone with organic compounds under atmospheric pressure, Chem. Rev., 84, 437470.
  • Baker, B., A. Guenther, J. Greenberg, A. Goldstein, and R. Fall (1999), Canopy fluxes of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol over a ponderosa pine forest by relaxed eddy accumulation: Field data and model comparison, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D21), 2610726114.
  • Baker, J., J. Arey, and R. Atkinson (2004), Kinetics and gas-phase reactions of OH radicals, NO3 radicals and O3 with three C7 carbonyls formed from the atmospheric reactions of myrcene, ocimene and terpinolene, J. Atmos. Chem., 48, 241260.
  • Baker, J. M. (2000), Conditional sampling revisited, Agric. For. Meteor., 104, 5965.
  • Baker, J. M., J. M. Norman, and W. L. Bland (1992), Field-scale application of flux measurement by conditional sampling, Agric. For. Meteor., 62, 3152.
  • Bash, J. O., and Miller, D. (2008), A relaxed eddy accumulation system for measuring surface fluxes of total gaseous mercury, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 25, 244257, doi:10.1175/2007JTECHA908.1.
  • Baum, K. A., and J. M. Ham (2009) Adaptation of a speciation sampling cartridge for measuring ammonia from cattle feedlots using relaxed eddy accumulation, Atmos. Environ., 43, 17531759, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.021.
  • Beverland, I. J., D. H. Ónéil, S. L. Scott, and J. B. Moncrieff (1996), Design, construction and operation of flux measurement systems using the conditional sampling technique, Atmos. Environ., 30(18), 32093220.
  • Bouvier-Brown, N. C., A. H. Goldstein, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, and J. A. de Gouw (2009), In-situ ambient quantification of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related oxygenated compounds during BEARPEX 2007: Implications for gas- and particle-phase chemistry, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 55055518.
  • Brut, A., D. Legain, P. Durand, and P. Laville (2004), A relaxed eddy accumulator for surface flux measurements on ground-based platforms and aboard research vessels, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 21, 411427, doi:10.1175/1520-0426(2004)021.
  • Businger, J. A. (1991), Conditional sampling technique for flux measurement, U. S. Patent #526959.
  • Businger, J. A., and A. C. Delany (1990), Chemical sensor resolution required for measuring surface fluxes by three common micrometeorological techniques, J. Amos. Chem., 10, 399410.
  • Businger, J. A., and S. P. Oncley (1990), Flux measurement with conditional sampling, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 7, 349352.
  • Calogirou, A., N. R. Jensen, C. J. Nielsen, D. Kotzias, and J. Hjorth (1999), Gas phase reactions of nonpinone, 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal, and 5-methyl-5-vinyltetrahydrofuran-2-ol with OH, NO3 and ozone, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33, 453460.
  • Christensen, C. S., P. Hummelshøj, N. O. Jensen, B. Larsen, C. Lohse, K. Pilegaard, and H. Skov (2000), Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation, Atmos. Environ. 34, 30573067.
  • Ciccioli, P., et al. (1999), Emission of reactive terpene compounds from orange orchards and their removal by within-canopy processes, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D7), 80778094.
  • Ciccioli, P., E. Brancaleoni, M. Frattoni, S. Marta, A. Brachetti, M. Vitullo, G. Tirone, and E. Valentini (2003), Relaxed eddy accumulation, a new technique for measuring emission and deposition fluxes of volatile organic compounds by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, J. Chromatog. A, 985, 283296.
  • Cobos, D. R., J. M. Baker, and E. A. Nater (2002), Conditional sampling for measuring mercury vapor fluxes, Atmos. Environ., 36, 43094321.
  • Darmais, S., L. Dutaur, B. Larsen, S. Cieslik, L. Luchetta, V. Simon, and L. Torres (2000), Emission fluxes of VOC by orange trees determined by both relaxed eddy accumulation and vertical gradient approaches, Chemosphere, 2, 4756.
  • Delon, C., A. Druilhet, and R. Delmas (2000), Aircraft assessment of trace compound fluxes in atmosphere with relaxed eddy accumulation: Sensitivity to the conditions of selection, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D16), 2046120472.
  • Fantechi, G., N. R. Jensen, J. Hjorth, and J. Peeters (1998), Determination of the rate constants for the gas phase reactions of methylbutenol with OH radicals, ozone, NO3 radicals, and Cl atoms, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 30, 589594.
  • Finnigan, J. J., R. Clement, Y. Malhi, R. Leuning, and H. A. Cleugh 2003, A re-evaluation of long term flux measurement techniques – Part I: Averaging and coordinate rotation, Bound-Layer Meteor., 107, 148.
  • Forkel, R., O. Klemm, M. Graus, B. Rappenglück, W. R. Stockwell, W. Grabmer, A. Held, A. Hansel and R. Steinbrecher (2006), Trace gas exchange and gas phase chemistry in a Norway spruce forest: a case study with a coupled 1-dimensional canopy atmospheric chemistry emission model, Atmos. Environ. 40, Supplement 1, 2842, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.11.070.
  • Fuentes, J. D., D. Wang, D. R. Bowling, M. Postosnak, R. K. Monson, W. S. Goliff and W. R. Stockwell (2007), Biogenic hydrocarbon chemistry within and above a mixed deciduous forest, J. Atmos. Chem., 56, 165185, doi 10.1007/s10874-006-9048-4.
  • Gallagher, M. W., R. Clayborough, K. M. Beswick, C. N. Hewitt, S. Owen, J. Moncrieff and K. Pilegaard (2000), Assessment of a relaxed eddy accumulation for measurements of fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds: Study over arable crops and a mature beech forest, Atmos. Environ., 34, 28872899.
  • Gaman, A., Ü. Rannik, P. Aalto, T. Pohja, E. Siivola, M. Kumala and T. Vesala (2004), Relaxed eddy accumulation system for size-resolved aerosol particle flux measurements, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 933943.
  • Geron, C. D., and R. R. Arnts (2010), Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana, Atmos. Environ., 44(34), 42404251.
  • Graus, M., et al. (2006), A relaxed eddy accumulation method for the measurement of isoprenoid canopy-fluxes using an online gas-chromatographic technique and PTR-MS simultaneously, Atmos. Environ., 40, S43S54, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.09.094.
  • Guenther, A., et al. (1995), A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D5), 88738892.
  • Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. Palmer, and C. Geron (2006), Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 31813210.
  • Guenther, A., P. Zimmerman, P. Harley, R. Monson, and R. Fall (1993), Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: Model evaluation and sensitivity analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1260912617.
  • Haapanala, S., J. Rinne, K.-H. Pystynen, H. Hellén, H. Hakola, and T. Riutta (2006), Measurement of hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal fen using the REA technique, Biogeosciences, 3, 103112.
  • Helmig, D. (1997), Ozone removal techniques in the sampling of atmospheric volatile organic trace gases, Atmos. Environ., 31(21), 36353651.
  • Helmig, D., B. Balsey, K. Davis, L. R. Kuck, M. Jensen, J. Bognar, T. Smith, Jr., R. V. Arrieta, R. Rodríguez, and J. W. Birks (1998), Vertical profiling and determination of landscape fluxes of biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons within the planetary boundary layer in the Peruvian Amazon, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D19), 2551925532.
  • Hoffman, T. (1995), Adsorptive preconcentration technique including oxidant scavenging for the measurement of reactive natural hydrocarbons in ambient air. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 351, 4147.
  • Hoffman, T., J. R. Odum, F. Bowman, D. Collins, D. Klockow, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld (1997), Formation of organic aerosols from the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons, J. Atmos. Chem., 26, 189222.
  • Jones, B. T., and J. E. Ham (2008), α-Terpineol reactions with the nitrate radical: Rate constant and gas phase products, Atmos. Environ., 42, 668998, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.04.017.
  • Kinerson, R. S., K. O. Higginbotham and R. C. Chapman (1974), The dynamics of foliage distribution within a forest canopy, J. Appl. Ecol. 11, 347353.
  • Klawatsch-Carrasco, N., J. F. Doussin, and P. Carlier (2004), Absolute rate constants for the gas-phase ozonolysis of isoprene and methylbutenol, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 36(3), 152156.
  • Lee, X. (2000), Water vapor density effect on measurements of trace gas mixing ratio and flux with a mass flow controller, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D14), 1780717810.
  • Lee, X., J. Finnigan, and K. T. Paw U (2004), Coordinate systems and flux bias error, Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis ( Lee, X., W. Massman, and B. Law, eds), pp. 3366, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Lenschow, D. H., and M. R. Raupach (1991), The attenuation of fluctuations in scalar concentrations through sampling tubes, J. Geophys. Res., 96(D8), 1525915268.
  • Majewski, M., R. Desjardins, P. Rochette, E. Pattey, J. Selber, and D. Glotfelty (1993), Field comparison of an eddy accumulation and aerodynamic-gradient system for measuring pesticide volatilization fluxes, Environ. Sci. Technol., 27, 121128.
  • Meyers, T. P., W. T. Luke, and J. J. Meisinger (2006), Fluxes of ammonia and sulfate over maize using relaxed eddy accumulation, Agric. For. Meteor., 136, 203213, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.10.005.
  • Moncrieff, J., R. Clement, J. Finnigan, T. Meyers (2004), Averaging, detrending, and filtering of eddy covariance time series, In: Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis ( Lee, X., W. Massman, and B. Law, eds), pp. 731, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Nemitz, E., M. Flynn, P. I. Williams, C. Milford, M. R. Theobald, A. Blatter, M. W. Gallagher, and M. A. Sutton (2001), A relaxed eddy accumulation system for the automated measurement of atmospheric ammonia fluxes, Water Air & Soil Pollution: Focus, 1, 189202.
  • Nie, D., T. E. Kleindienst, R. R. Arnts, and J. E. Sickles II (1995), The design and testing of a relaxed eddy accumulation system, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D6), 1141411423.
  • Olofsson, M., B. Ek-Olausson, N. O. Jensen, S. Langer, and E. Ljungström (2005), The flux of isoprene from a willow coppice plantation and the effect on air quality, Atmos. Environ., 39, 20612070, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.12.015.
  • Olofsson, M., B. Ek-Olausson, E. Ljungström, and S. Langer (2003), Flux of organic compounds from grass measured by relaxed eddy accumulation technique, J. Environ. Monit., 5, 963970.
  • Oncley, S. P., A. C. Delany, T. W. Horst and P. P. Tans (1993), Verification of flux measurement using relaxed eddy accumulation, Atmos. Environ., 27A(15), 24172426.
  • Park, C., G. W. Schade, and I. Boedeker (2010), Flux measurements of volatile organic compounds by the relaxed eddy accumulation method combined with a GC-FID system in urban Houston, Texas, Atmos. Environ., 44, 26052614, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.04.016.
  • Pattey, E., R. L. Desjardins, and P. Rochette (1993), Accuracy of the relaxed eddy-accumulation technique, evaluated using CO2 flux measurements, Boundary-Layer Meteor., 66, 341355.
  • Plaza, J., L. Núñez, M. Pujadas, R. Pérez-Pastor, V. Bermejo, S. Garcia-Alonso, and S. Elvira (2005), Field monoterpene emission of Mediterranean oak (Quercus ilex) in the central Iberian Peninsula measured by enclosure and micrometeorological techniques: observation of drought stress effect, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D03303, doi:10.1029/2004JD005168.
  • Pollmann, J., J. Ortega, and D. Helmig (2005), Analysis of atmospheric sesquiterpenes: sampling losses and mitigation of ozone interferences, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 96209629, doi:10.1021/es050440w.
  • Pryor, S. C., R. J. Barthelmie, B. Jensen, N. O. Jensen, and L. L. Sørensen (2002), HNO3 fluxes to a deciduous forest derived using gradient and REA methods, Atmos. Environ., 36, 59935999.
  • Reissell, A., J. Arey and R. Atkinson (2001), Atmospheric chemistry of camphor, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 33, 5663.
  • Rinne, J., H. Hakola, T. Laurila, and Ü. Rannik (2000), Canopy scale monoterpene emissions of Pinus sylvestris dominated forests, Atmos. Environ., 34, 10991107.
  • Rinne, J., T. Markkanen, T. M. Ruuskanen, T. Petäjä, P. Keronen, M. J. Tang, J. N. Crowley, Ü. Rannik, and T. Vesala (2012), Effect or chemical degradation on fluxes of reactive compounds – a study with a stochastic Lagrangian transport model, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 12, 48434854
  • Rudich, Y., R. R. Talukdar, J. B. Burkholder, and A. R. Ravishankara (1995), Reaction of methylbutenol with hydroxyl radical: Mechanism and atmospheric implications, J. Phys. Chem., 99, 1218812194.
  • Schade, G. W., and A. H. Goldstein (2001), Fluxes of oxygenated volatile organic compounds from a Ponderosa pine plantation, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D3), 31113123.
  • Schery, S. D., P. T. Wasiolek, B. M. Nemetz, and F. D. Yarger (1998), Relaxed eddy accumulator for flux measurement of nanometer-size particles. Aerosol Sci Technol, 28, 159172.
  • Stroud, C., P. Makar, T. Karl, A. Guenther, C. Geron, A. Turnipseed, E. Nemitz, B. Baker, M. Potosnak, and J. D. Fuentes (2005), Role of canopy-scale photochemistry in modifying biogenic-atmosphere exchange of reactive terpene species: Results from the CELTIC field study, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D17303, doi:10.1029/2005JD005775.
  • Skov, H., S. B. Brooks, M. E. Goodsite, S. E. Lindberg, T. P. Myers, M. S. Landis, M. R. B. Larsen, B. Jensen, G. McConville, and J. Christensen (2006), Fluxes of reactive gaseous mercury measured with a newly developed method using relaxed eddy accumulation, Atmos. Environ., 40, 54525463, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.04.0461.
  • Valentini, R., S. Greco, G. Seufert, N. Bertin, P. Ciccioli, A. Cecinato, E. Brancaleoni, and M. Frattoni (1997), Fluxes of biogenic VOC from Mediterranean vegetation by trap enrichment relaxed eddy accumulation, Atmos. Environ., 31(S1), 229238.
  • Valverde-Canossa, J., L. Ganzeveld, B. Rappenglück, R. Steinbrecher, O. Klemm, G. Schuster, and G. K. Moorgat (2006), First measurements of H2O2 and organic peroxides surface fluxes by the relaxed eddy-accumulation technique, Atmos. Environ. 40, S55S67, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.038.
  • Wells, J. R. (2005), Gas-phase chemistry of α-terpineol with ozone and OH radical: rate constants and products, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 6937.
  • Wofe, G. M. and J. A. Thornton (2011), The chemistry of atmosphere-forest exchange (CAFÉ) model –Part 1: Model description and characterization, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 77101, doi:10.5194/acp-11-77-2011.