• Madden Julian Oscillation;
  • Indian Ocean Dipole;
  • moisture convergence;
  • intraseasonal variability;
  • interannual variability

[1] The characteristics of Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) development and propagation during Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events are presented in this study. We find that MJO activity over the Indian Ocean and Maritime Continent is enhanced during negative IOD and subdued during positive IOD. MJO events occurring during positive IOD have weaker convection and less organized wind anomalies than those occurring during neutral or negative IOD. These differences are starkest over the eastern Indian Ocean where the IOD has the greatest effect on low-level humidity. Based on these observations and current MJO theories, we posit that the IOD primarily influences the MJO through its modulation of local low-level moisture.