A comparison between the effects of artificial land cover and anthropogenic heat on a localized heavy rain event in 2008 in Zoshigaya, Tokyo, Japan



[1] On 5 August 2008, a localized heavy rainfall event caused a rapid increase in drainpipe discharge, which killed five people working in a drainpipe near Zoshigaya, Tokyo. This study compared the effects of artificial land cover and anthropogenic heat on this localized heavy rainfall event based on three ensemble experiments using a cloud-resolving model that includes realistic urban features. The first experiment CTRL (control) considered realistic land cover and urban features, including artificial land cover, anthropogenic heat, and urban geometry. In the second experiment NOAH (no anthropogenic heat), anthropogenic heat was ignored. In the third experiment NOLC (no land cover), urban heating from artificial land cover was reduced by keeping the urban geometry but with roofs, walls, and roads of artificial land cover replaced by shallow water. The results indicated that both anthropogenic heat and artificial land cover increased the amount of precipitation and that the effect of artificial land cover was larger than that of anthropogenic heat. However, in the middle stage of the precipitation event, the difference between the two effects became small. Weak surface heating in NOAH and NOLC reduced the near-surface air temperature and weakened the convergence of horizontal wind and updraft over the urban areas, resulting in a reduced rainfall amount compared with that in CTRL.