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Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)

27 July 2011

Volume 116, Issue D14

Currently known as: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

  1. Aerosol and Clouds

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. You have free access to this content
      Development of empirical angular distribution models for smoke aerosols: Methods

      Falguni Patadia, Sundar A. Christopher and Jianglong Zhang

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015033

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      Key Points

      • First empirical smoke ADMs for land
      • Improvement over existing CERES clear sky ADMs over land
      • TOA SWF derived from this study are better suited for smoke radiative forcing
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      Aerosol properties over the ocean from PARASOL multiangle photopolarimetric measurements

      Otto P. Hasekamp, Pavel Litvinov and André Butz

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015469

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      Key Points

      • New retrieval algorithm for PARASOL developed; very good agreement with AERONET
      • Added value of polarization measurements demonstrated with real measurements
      • Multiangle polarimetric measurements have high potential for cloud screening
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      Charge separation in low-temperature ice cloud regions

      Eldo E. Ávila, Rodrigo E. Bürgesser, Nesvit E. Castellano, Rodolfo G. Pereyra and Clive P. R. Saunders

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015475

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      Key Points

      • Report the first measurements of charge separation in glaciated cloud regions
      • The mechanism may be relevant in deep convective clouds
      • The mechanism could be the main generator for high-altitude lightning
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      Improving the CALIOP aerosol optical depth using combined MODIS-CALIOP observations and CALIOP integrated attenuated total color ratio

      Min Oo and Robert Holz

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD014894

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      Key Points

      • Evaluate the MODIS and CALIOP Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieval
      • Knowledge of aerosol size can be used to better constrain the lidar ratio
      • Color ratio can be used to constrain lidar ratio
  2. Climate and Dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. You have free access to this content
      Signature of microphysics on spatial rainfall statistics

      A. Parodi, E. Foufoula-Georgiou and K. Emanuel

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015124

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      Key Points

      • To provide some insight about the role of microphysics for deep moist convection
      • New perspectives for downscaling
      • New perspectives for the use of GPM products
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      Analysis of the impacts of station exposure on the U.S. Historical Climatology Network temperatures and temperature trends

      Souleymane Fall, Anthony Watts, John Nielsen-Gammon, Evan Jones, Dev Niyogi, John R. Christy and Roger A. Pielke Sr.

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015146

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      Key Points

      • Temperature trend estimates vary according to site classification
      • Poorly sited stations are warmer compared to interpolated NARR temperatures
      • The diurnal temperature range in the lower 48 states has no century-scale trend
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      Space-time cascades and the scaling of ECMWF reanalyses: Fluxes and fields

      S. Lovejoy and D. Schertzer

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015654

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      Key Points

      • ECMWF reanalyse fluxes have cascade statistics in space and time
      • The reanalysis fields have horizontally anisotropic scaling
      • The cascade structure qualitatively the same as measurements, and needed for EFS
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      Summertime surface energy budget and ablation modeling in the ablation zone of a maritime Tibetan glacier

      Wei Yang, Xiaofeng Guo, Tandong Yao, Kun Yang, Long Zhao, Shenghai Li and Meilin Zhu

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015183

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      Key Points

      • The progression of the Indian monsoon affects glacier melting
      • Net radiation governs the energy budget on the southeast Tibetan glacier
      • Simple temperature index method is accurate for a long-term ablation model
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      El Niño–Southern Oscillation–related principal interannual variability modes of early and late summer rainfall over East Asia in sea surface temperature-driven atmospheric general circulation model simulations

      Bo Li and Tianjun Zhou

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015691

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      Key Points

      • MJ-2, MJ-3, JA-1 and JA-2 modes are ENSO-related modes
      • MJ-3 is well predicted, and MJ-3 and JA-1 are moderate predicted
      • Skills of AMIP models to predict the rainfall modes are not resolution-dependent
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      Sensitivity of outgoing longwave radiative flux to the global vertical distribution of ozone characterized by instantaneous radiative kernels from Aura-TES

      H. M. Worden, K. W. Bowman, S. S. Kulawik and A. M. Aghedo

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015101

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      Key Points

      • New satellite data product (TES IRK in W/m2/ppb) for OLR sensitivity to ozone
      • Distributions of OLR sensitivity and radiative effect for IR ozone absorption
      • Clouds have a significant effect on the vertical profiles of IRKs
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      A method to diagnose sources of annular mode time scales

      Lawrence R. Mudryk and Paul J. Kushner

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015291

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      Key Points

      • Stratospheric annular mode time scales linked to local temperature variations
      • Tropospheric annular mode time scales linked to surface pressure variations
      • Surface pressure-temperature cross correlations are weak but highly persistent
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      Observed surface warming induced by urbanization in east China

      Xuchao Yang, Yiling Hou and Baode Chen

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015452

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      Key Points

      • The rapid urbanization has significant impacts on temperature over east China
      • A new method was developed to dynamically classify urban and rural stations
      • Comparison of the trends of UHI effects by using OMR and UMR approaches
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      Seasonal variations of gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere over an Antarctic Peninsula station

      T. Moffat-Griffin, R. E. Hibbins, M. J. Jarvis and S. R. Colwell

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015349

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      Key Points

      • GW energy in the stratosphere above the Antarctic Peninsula is presented
      • During winter, more downward propagating waves than upward
      • Westward propagation in agreement with that seen in the upper mesosphere
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      The energy cycle and structural evolution of cyclones over southeastern South America in three case studies

      João Rafael Dias Pinto and Rosmeri Porfírio da Rocha

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016217

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      Key Points

      • Presents new insights on the cyclones development
      • Presents new tool in analyzing synoptic systems
      • Presents results for a poorly studied area of the Atlantic
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      Statistics of precipitation reflectivity images and cascade of Gaussian-scale mixtures in the wavelet domain: A formalism for reproducing extremes and coherent multiscale structures

      Mohammad Ebtehaj and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015177

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      Key Points

      • Multiscale statistics of precipitation
      • Gaussian-scale mixtures in wavelet domain for precipitation image modeling
      • Estimation and multisensor precipitation data fusion
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      Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 1. Measurement and sampling uncertainties

      J. J. Kennedy, N. A. Rayner, R. O. Smith, D. E. Parker and M. Saunby

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015218

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      Key Points

      • Errors in SST measurements are correlated
      • Errors in SST measurements have previously been underestimated
      • New error estimates in SST data have been made which account for these
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      Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 2. Biases and homogenization

      J. J. Kennedy, N. A. Rayner, R. O. Smith, D. E. Parker and M. Saunby

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015220

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      Key Points

      • There are biases in SST measurements throughout the record
      • These biases have been adjusted for, but large uncertainties remain
      • A new SST data set, HadSST3, is presented
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      Clear-sky biases in satellite infrared estimates of upper tropospheric humidity and its trends

      Viju O. John, Gerrit Holl, Richard P. Allan, Stefan A. Buehler, David E. Parker and Brian J. Soden

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015355

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      Key Points

      • A unique method to estimate the clear-sky bias
      • Coherent patterns of clear-sky bias were found
      • Impacts on variability and trends are also assessed
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      Vertical mixing of commercial aviation emissions from cruise altitude to the surface

      D. B. Whitt, M. Z. Jacobson, J. T. Wilkerson, A. D. Naiman and S. K. Lele

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015532

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      Key Points

      • Most aviation emissions occur in relatively stable air
      • Not many extratropical cruise-altitude emissions are transported to the surface
      • Extratropical vertical transport is slower than wet-removal
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      Investigating spatial climate relations using CARTs: An application to persistent hot days in a multimodel ensemble

      B. Orlowsky and S. I. Seneviratne

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015188

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      Key Points

      • CARTs are used to study relations between climate and extreme event patterns
      • CARTs can assess the robustness of such relations in multimodel ensembles
      • Relations found within climate states differ from those for climate change
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      Land surface temperature estimation to improve the assimilation of SEVIRI radiances over land

      S. Guedj, F. Karbou and F. Rabier

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015776

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      Key Points

      • LST estimations over Europe
      • LST computation within mesoscale model
      • Assimilation experiment and evaluation
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      Modeled surface air temperature response to snow depth variability

      Patrick Alexander and Gavin Gong

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD014908

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      Key Points

      • Snow depth perturbations reduce modeled surface air temperatures by 1K
      • This study clarifies the documented air temperature response to snow depth
      • The results suggest a role of snow depth in large-scale features of climate
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      Improved low-cloud simulation from a multiscale modeling framework with a third-order turbulence closure in its cloud-resolving model component

      Anning Cheng and Kuan-Man Xu

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015362

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      Key Points

      • Implement a third-order turbulence closure in CRM component of an MMF
      • Improve the low-cloud representation in climate modeling
      • Understand the physical processes influecing the PBL clouds
  3. Composition and Chemistry

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. You have free access to this content
      Nitrous acid (HONO) during polar spring in Barrow, Alaska: A net source of OH radicals?

      G. Villena, P. Wiesen, C. A. Cantrell, F. Flocke, A. Fried, S. R. Hall, R. S. Hornbrook, D. Knapp, E. Kosciuch, R. L. Mauldin III, J. A. McGrath, D. Montzka, D. Richter, K. Ullmann, J. Walega, P. Weibring, A. Weinheimer, R. M. Staebler, J. Liao, L. G. Huey and J. Kleffmann

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016643

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      Key Points

      • Polar HONO concentrations much lower compared to previous studies
      • HONO is still a major source of OH radicals in the polar atmosphere
      • Photochemical HONO formation by a long wavelength range process including NO2
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      The specific surface area and chemical composition of diamond dust near Barrow, Alaska

      Florent Domine, Jean-Charles Gallet, Manuel Barret, Stéphan Houdier, Didier Voisin, Thomas A. Douglas, Joel D. Blum, Harry J. Beine, Cort Anastasio and François-Marie Bréon

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016162

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      Key Points

      • The specific surface area of diamond dust has been measured
      • Aldehydes, ions, mercury, H2O2, organic carbon were measured in diamond dust
      • Evidence for photochemistry in precipitated diamond dust is presented
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      Soluble, light-absorbing species in snow at Barrow, Alaska

      Harry Beine, Cort Anastasio, Giulio Esposito, Kelley Patten, Elizabeth Wilkening, Florent Domine, Didier Voisin, Manuel Barret, Stephan Houdier and Sam Hall

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016181

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      Key Points

      • Snow chromophores are 50:50 HULIS & unknown, HOOH & NO3- are minor contributions
      • Four sources of chromophores: vegetation, marine, diamond dust, & atmos. exchange
      • Photo-bleaching of chromophores in snow is significant
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      The vertical distribution of BrO and aerosols in the Arctic: Measurements by active and passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy

      U. Frieß, H. Sihler, R. Sander, D. Pöhler, S. Yilmaz and U. Platt

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015938

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      Key Points

      • Simultaneous measurement of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and BrO
      • BrO release from aerosols and airborne ice particles
      • BrO emission from first-year sea ice or frost flowers at low temperatures
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      Formaldehyde in the Alaskan Arctic snowpack: Partitioning and physical processes involved in air-snow exchanges

      Manuel Barret, Florent Domine, Stephan Houdier, Jean-Charles Gallet, Petter Weibring, James Walega, Alan Fried and Dirk Richter

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016038

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      Key Points

      • HCHO in snow equilibrates by solid state diffusion
      • A photochemical production of HCHO takes place in the snowpack
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      Gaseous dry deposition of atmospheric mercury: A comparison of two surface resistance models for deposition to semiarid vegetation

      Heather A. Holmes, Eric R. Pardyjak, Kevin D. Perry and Michael L. Abbott

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015182

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      Key Points

      • Compares dry Hg flux calculations from 2 surface parameterizations
      • Investigates the annual, seasonal and diurnal variation of physical processes
      • Identifies important sources of error in the resistance methodologies
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      Deposition fluxes of terpenes over grassland

      I. Bamberger, L. Hörtnagl, T. M. Ruuskanen, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Müller, M. Graus, T. Karl, G. Wohlfahrt and A. Hansel

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015457

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      Key Points

      • First deposition fluxes of terpenes to grass
      • Deposition flux of monoterpenes
      • Deposition flux of sesquiterpenes
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      Detection of optical path in spectroscopic space-based observations of greenhouse gases: Application to GOSAT data processing

      Sergey Oshchepkov, Andrey Bril, Shamil Maksyutov and Tatsuya Yokota

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015352

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      Key Points

      • Method for detection of aerosol and cirrus in spectroscopic sounding from space
      • Set a threshold when optical path modification is negligible
      • Application to GOSAT data processing showed the validity of the proposed method
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      Interannual variability and trends in atmospheric methane over the western Pacific from 1994 to 2010

      Yukio Terao, Hitoshi Mukai, Yukihiro Nojiri, Toshinobu Machida, Yasunori Tohjima, Tazu Saeki and Shamil Maksyutov

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015467

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      Key Points

      • CH4 increases in 1997–1998 and 2007
      • ENSO-related atmospheric circulation and CH4 variation
      • North-south differences in CH4 growth in 2007
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      The photolysis of flash-frozen dilute hydrogen peroxide solutions

      Harry Beine and Cort Anastasio

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015531

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      Key Points

      • Phi(HOOH) of flash-frozen ice is smaller than previously published
      • HOOH photolysis rate constants decrease as concentration of organics decrease
      • HOOH photolytic lifetimes in polar zones may not allow HOOH burial in snow
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      Patterns of CO2 and radiocarbon across high northern latitudes during International Polar Year 2008

      S. A. Vay, Y. Choi, K. P. Vadrevu, D. R. Blake, S. C. Tyler, A. Wisthaler, A. Hecobian, Y. Kondo, G. S. Diskin, G. W. Sachse, J.-H. Woo, A. J. Weinheimer, J. F. Burkhart, A. Stohl and P. O. Wennberg

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015643

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      Key Points

      • LRT of CO2 emissions to North Pole
      • Enriched 14CO2 from fires offsetting ff CO2
      • CO2 Emission Factor 1634 g per kg DM
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      A comparison of Arctic BrO measurements by chemical ionization mass spectrometry and long path-differential optical absorption spectroscopy

      J. Liao, H. Sihler, L. G. Huey, J. A. Neuman, D. J. Tanner, U. Friess, U. Platt, F. M. Flocke, J. J. Orlando, P. B. Shepson, H. J. Beine, A. J. Weinheimer, S. J. Sjostedt, J. B. Nowak, D. J. Knapp, R. M. Staebler, W. Zheng, R. Sander, S. R. Hall and K. Ullmann

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD014788

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