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Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)

27 August 2011

Volume 116, Issue D16

Currently known as: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

  1. Aerosol and Clouds

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. You have free access to this content
      Analysis of cloud condensation nuclei properties at a polluted site in southeastern China during the AMF-China Campaign

      Jianjun Liu, Youfei Zheng, Zhanqing Li and Maureen Cribb

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016395

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      Key Points

      • CCN is exceptionally high in China
      • CCN varies with air mass and weather
      • Nucleation rate for dust is low even with pollution
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      Vertical velocity structure of marine boundary layer trade wind cumulus clouds

      Virendra P. Ghate, Mark A. Miller and Lynne DiPretore

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015344

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      Key Points

      • First turbulence observations of the marine trade wind cumulus clouds
      • 557 cumulli totalling to 114 hours were sampled
      • The updraft mass-flux and updraft fraction have similar vertical profiles
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      Evidence of a natural marine source of oxalic acid and a possible link to glyoxal

      Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Claudio Carbone, Emanuela Finessi, Sandro Fuzzi, Darius Ceburnis, Colin D. O'Dowd, Jean Sciare, John P. Burrows, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Barbara Ervens, Kostas Tsigaridis and Maria Cristina Facchini

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015659

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      Key Points

      • The data support the existence of a natural source of oxalic acid over the ocean
      • Oxalic acid size distribution suggests multiple sources in the MBL
      • Incloud oxidation of glyoxal may be an important source of submicron oxalic acid
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      Detection of Asian dust in California orographic precipitation

      Andrew P. Ault, Christopher R. Williams, Allen B. White, Paul J. Neiman, Jessie M. Creamean, Cassandra J. Gaston, F. Martin Ralph and Kimberly A. Prather

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015351

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      Key Points

      • Asian dust is transported to North America and incorporated into clouds
      • Cloud top dust glaciates supercooled drops or acts as IN increasing precip
      • Comparison of precipitation during 2 atmospheric rivers, one Asian with dust
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      Retrieval of two-layer cloud properties from multispectral observations using optimal estimation

      P. D. Watts, R. Bennartz and F. Fell

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015883

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      Key Points

      • CTP sensitive to visible channels in VIS-IR OE method over multilayer clouds
      • Detection of multilayer clouds based on high OE solution cost sensitivity
      • Two-layer model with OE and VIS, NIR, and IR channels retrieves two-layer properties
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      Ozone oxidation of oleic acid surface films decreases aerosol cloud condensation nuclei activity

      A. N. Schwier, N. Sareen, T. L. Lathem, A. Nenes and V. F. McNeill

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015520

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      Key Points

      • Experiments show oxidation decreases CCN activity of organic-inorganic aerosols
      • Oxidation causes phase separation in sodium oleate-inorganic salt aerosols
      • Oxidation may not always enhance the water uptake of inorganic-organic aerosols
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      Emissions of black carbon in East Asia estimated from observations at a remote site in the East China Sea

      Y. Kondo, N. Oshima, M. Kajino, R. Mikami, N. Moteki, N. Takegawa, R. L. Verma, Y. Kajii, S. Kato and A. Takami

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015637

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      Key Points

      • CMAQ model reproduced the temporal variations of BC in the Asian outflows
      • Our estimate of BC emissions from China is close to that of Zhang et al. [2009]
      • The uncertainty of the estimated BC emissions is 54%, a great improvement
  2. Climate and Dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
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      Shortwave broadband black-sky surface albedo estimation for Arctic sea ice using passive microwave radiometer data

      Vesa Laine, Terhikki Manninen, Aku Riihelä and Kaj Andersson

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015700

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      Key Points

      • Microwave radiometer can be used for Arctic sea ice shortwave albedo estimation
      • Microwave-based albedo is available in low sun elevation and cloudy cases
      • Earlier onset of melting can be detected using microwaves
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      The role of eastern Siberian snow and soil moisture anomalies in quasi-biennial persistence of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations

      R. J. Allen and C. S. Zender

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015311

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      Key Points

      • Multiannual persistence of the AO and NAO is partially due to Eurasian snow cover
      • Persistence of Eurasian snow cover is related to soil moisture anomalies
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      Satellite remote sensing of blowing snow properties over Antarctica

      Stephen P. Palm, Yuekui Yang, James D. Spinhirne and Alexander Marshak

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015828

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      Key Points

      • Antarctic blowing snow frequency, distribution, height, optical depth are evaluated
      • Large blowing snow storms lasting days and covering huge areas are frequent
      • Mass transport of blowing snow off Antarctic continent is appreciable
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      Meteor radar observations of short-term variability of quasi 2 day waves and their interaction with tides and planetary waves in the mesosphere–lower thermosphere region over Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E)

      Veena Suresh Babu, Karanam Kishore Kumar, Sherine R. John, K. V. Subrahmanyam and Geetha Ramkumar

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015390

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      Key Points

      • A consistent peak in quasi 2 day activity during October
      • The relation between SSAO and quasi 2 day wave activity
      • The short-term variability of 2 day waves and their interactions
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      Inertia gravity waves associated with deep convection observed during the summers of 2005 and 2007 in Korea

      Mi-Ok Ki and Hye-Yeong Chun

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015684

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      Key Points

      • Gravity waves observed in rawinsondes in Korea
      • Using a ray-tracing model to find source wave relationship
      • Understanding annual difference of observed waves
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      Future projections of surface UV-B in a changing climate

      S. Watanabe, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, T. Takemura, H. Kawase and T. Nozawa

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015749

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      Key Points

      • Future all-sky UV-B radiation at the Earth's surface is projected by an ESM
      • The UV-B is dramatically affected by the future socioeconomic scenarios
      • Tropospheric/stratospheric ozone, aerosols, clouds, and albedo affect the result
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      Structure and formation of dust devil–like vortices in the atmospheric boundary layer: A high-resolution numerical study

      S. Raasch and T. Franke

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016010

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      Key Points

      • Vortex tracks were used to derive mean 3-D dust devil features
      • Dust devil locations are closely linked to the near-surface CBL flow pattern
      • Tilting and divergence term are the main source of dust devils' vorticity
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      Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

      Shih-Chieh Kao and Auroop R. Ganguly

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015529

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      Key Points

      • Precipitation extremes grow more frequent and more intense under global warming
      • Extratropical projections are more skilfull and validate temperature dependence
      • Precipitation extremes attributes can be translated to impacts-relevant metrics
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      Accumulation and melt dynamics of snowpack from a multiresolution regional climate model in the central Sierra Nevada, California

      Tamlin M. Pavelsky, Sarah Kapnick and Alex Hall

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015479

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      Key Points

      • Snowpack in the WRF-Noah model is most accurate at 9 km or finer
      • WRF-Noah snow accumulation is unbiased, but snowmelt is biased 22-25 days early
      • One source of this bias may be errors in modeled turbulent heat fluxes
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      Northeast China summer temperature and North Atlantic SST

      Renguang Wu, Song Yang, Shi Liu, Li Sun, Yi Lian and Zongting Gao

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015779

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      Key Points

      • An obvious change in Northeast China temperature-North Atlantic SST relation
      • Persistence of the North Atlantic tripole SST pattern
      • Independent influence of the North Atlantic SST on northeast China temperature
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      High-speed video observations of a lightning stepped leader

      J. D. Hill, M. A. Uman and D. M. Jordan

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015818

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      Key Points

      • Fastest frame rate measurements to date of a natural lightning stepped leader
      • First images of space stems or leaders in association with a stepped leader
      • Shorter step lengths and interstep intervals than measured via streak photographs
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      High-resolution climate change simulations for the Jordan River area

      G. Smiatek, H. Kunstmann and A. Heckl

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015313

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      Key Points

      • Significant reduction of expected water availability in the Jordan River region
      • Significant elevation signal present in the simulated future climate
      • Increased coefficient of variation in simulated future annual precipitation
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      Budget study of the internal variability in ensemble simulations of the Canadian Regional Climate Model at the seasonal scale

      Oumarou Nikiema and René Laprise

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015841

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      Key Points

      • Internal variability is generally smaller than time Variability in RCM
      • RCM's internal variability is issued from the choatic nature of the atmosphere
      • No trend in RCM's internal variability at the seasonal season
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      Pakistan's two-stage monsoon and links with the recent climate change

      Shih-Yu Wang, Robert E. Davies, Wan-Ru Huang and Robert R. Gillies

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015760

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      Key Points

      • Role of climate change in Pakistan's extreme floods
      • Changing monsoon dynamics in the subtropics
      • Two-stage perspective of the Pakistan monsoon
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      Diagnosing the stratosphere-troposphere stationary wave response to climate change in a general circulation model

      Lei Wang and Paul J. Kushner

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015473

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      Key Points

      • Zonal mean changes explain much of the NH winter stationary wave response to GHG
      • This is dominated by zonal mean changes in the NH subtropical upper troposphere
      • Many effects contribute to an increased wave activity flux into the stratosphere
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      An examination of storm activity in the northeast Atlantic region over the 1851–2003 period using the EMULATE gridded MSLP data series

      Richard C. Cornes and Phil D. Jones

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016007

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      Key Points

      • The EMULATE MSLP data can provide useful information on storm activity
      • The increase in storm activity in the 1990s was related to the NA storm track
      • The storm activity in the 1870-1880s was related to different atmospheric dynamics
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      Drifting snow sublimation: A high-resolution 3-D model with temperature and moisture feedbacks

      C. D. Groot Zwaaftink, H. Löwe, R. Mott, M. Bavay and M. Lehning

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015754

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      Key Points

      • The snow transport model Alpine3D now accounts for drifting snow sublimation
      • On a lee slope, drifting snow sublimation reduced deposition by 10% in 43 h
      • Snow losses by drifting snow sublimation and surface sublimation are comparable
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      Verification of the mesospheric winds within the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model Data Assimilation System using radar measurements

      Xiaoyong Xu, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, C. Jacobi, C. M. Hall and J. R. Drummond

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015589

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      Key Points

      • The slaving of the mesosphere to the lower atmosphere
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      Nonlinear and nonstationary influences of geomagnetic activity on the winter North Atlantic Oscillation

      Yun Li, Hua Lu, Martin J. Jarvis, Mark A. Clilverd and Bryson Bates

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015822

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      Key Points

      • The nonlinear relationship between the geomagnetic aa index and the winter NAO
      • Multidecadal variation of solar activity and trend changes in the winter NAO
      • The aa-NAO relationship is in the declining phase of even-numbered solar cycles
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      Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate

      A. Dosio and P. Paruolo

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015934

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      Key Points

      • Bias corrected high-resolution climate change projections
      • Evaluation of the technique on the present climate
      • Provide a sueful database for impact assessment of climate change over Europe
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      Agreement between monthly precipitation estimates from TRMM satellite, NCEP reanalysis, and merged gauge-satellite analysis

      Dong-Bin Shin, Ju-Hye Kim and Hyo-Jin Park

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015483

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      Key Points

      • Global mean rainfalls from satellite and reanalysis are significantly different
      • Anomalies from all data sets agree relatively well in their variability patterns
      • Climate analyses on an interannual scale may not be affected by specific data
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      Was UV spectral solar irradiance lower during the recent low sunspot minimum?

      Mike Lockwood

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD014746

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      Key Points

      • Solar UV spectral intensity shows differences in the recent solar minimum
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      A new approach to resolving climate-cryosphere relations: Downscaling climate dynamics to glacier-scale mass and energy balance without statistical scale linking

      Thomas Mölg and Georg Kaser

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015669

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      Key Points

      • Novel combination of multiscale modeling systems
      • Process-resolving mass balance model is successfully driven by direct LAM output
      • High-resolution atmospheric modeling should be pursued in cryospheric research
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      Estimating the global radiative impact of the sea ice–albedo feedback in the Arctic

      Stephen R. Hudson

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015804

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      Key Points

      • The radiative forcing due to sea ice loss can be simply calculated
      • Current forcing is small, around 0.1 W/m2; it could increase to about 0.3 W/m2
      • Better understanding of related cloud changes is critical for full understanding
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      Land surface microwave emissivities derived from AMSR-E and MODIS measurements with advanced quality control

      Jean-Luc Moncet, Pan Liang, John F. Galantowicz, Alan E. Lipton, Gennady Uymin, Catherine Prigent and Christopher Grassotti

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015429

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      Key Points

      • A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from AMSR-E
      • The emissivity data are estimated to be more precise than prior databases
      • Emissivity products apply to retrieval of soil temperature
  3. Composition and Chemistry

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. You have free access to this content
      Ozone, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon monoxide during pollution events over the eastern United States: An evaluation of emissions and vertical mixing

      Patricia Castellanos, Lackson T. Marufu, Bruce G. Doddridge, Brett F. Taubman, James J. Schwab, Jennifer C. Hains, Sheryl H. Ehrman and Russell R. Dickerson

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD014540

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      Key Points

      • Model-measurement comparisons show CO emissions are either adequate or too low
      • NOx emissions from mobile sources may be overestimated
      • The lifetime of NOx may be underestimated in CMAQ 4.6.1 with CBIV
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      Water vapor self-continuum absorption in near-infrared windows derived from laboratory measurements

      Igor V. Ptashnik, Robert A. McPheat, Keith P. Shine, Kevin M. Smith and R. Gary Williams

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015603

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      Key Points

      • Water vapor self-continuum is derived from lab measurements in near-IR windows
      • The measured continuum is dramatically stronger than MT_CKD or far-wing models
      • This result changes calculated clear-sky absorption of solar radiation by 1%–2%
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      Assessing the impact of satellite, aircraft, and surface observations on CO2 flux estimation using an ensemble-based 4-D data assimilation system

      Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Takashi Maki, Prabir Patra and Takakiyo Nakazawa

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015366

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      Key Points

      • A data assimilation system is developed to estimate surface CO2 fluxes
      • GOSAT XCO2 and CONTRAIL aircraft data provide strong additional constraints
      • Simultaneous use of various type data improves the flux estimates globally
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Plant-specific volatile organic compound emission rates from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

      Araceli Bracho-Nunez, Saskia Welter, Michael Staudt and Jürgen Kesselmeier

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015521

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      Key Points

      • Developmental stage and phenological processes affect VOC emission
      • Methanol emissions from young leaves were higher than from mature leaves
      • Plants showed decrease or subsidence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene upon maturity
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      Comparison of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ocean aerosol retrievals with ship-based Sun photometer measurements from the Around the Americas expedition

      A. F. Adames, M. Reynolds, A. Smirnov, D. S. Covert and T. P. Ackerman

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015440

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      Key Points

      • Low AOD values for MODIS are biased high when compared to Microtops
      • Bias is attributable to surface wind speeds
      • No trends are observed for Ångström exponent
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      Can a “state of the art” chemistry transport model simulate Amazonian tropospheric chemistry?

      Michael P. Barkley, Paul I. Palmer, Laurens Ganzeveld, Almut Arneth, Daniel Hagberg, Thomas Karl, Alex Guenther, Fabien Paulot, Paul O. Wennberg, Jingqiu Mao, Thomas P. Kurosu, Kelly Chance, J.-F. Müller, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Dan Chen, Yuxuan Wang and Robert M. Yantosca

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015893

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      Key Points

      • Isoprene emissions from Amazon are highly uncertain
      • Choice of chemical mechanism/isoprene emissions has a large effect on HCHO columns
      • Model HCHO columns have positive bias compared with SCIAMACHY and OMI
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      Microscopic fungi as significant sesquiterpene emission sources

      Eszter Horváth, András Hoffer, Flóra Sebők, Csaba Dobolyi, Sándor Szoboszlay, Balázs Kriszt and András Gelencsér

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015523

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      Key Points

      • Microscopic fungi were shown to emit several sesquiterpenes
      • Sesquiterpene emission from fungi was measured in controlled lab experiments
      • Total sesquiterpene emission was estimated to be regionally significant

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