Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)

16 October 2012

Volume 117, Issue D19

Currently known as: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

  1. Aerosol and Clouds

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. Evidence of formation of submicrometer water-soluble organic aerosols at a deciduous forest site in northern Japan in summer

      Yuzo Miyazaki, Jinsang Jung, Pingqing Fu, Yasuko Mizoguchi, Katsumi Yamanoi and Kimitaka Kawamura

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018250

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      Key Points

      • Formation of PM1 WSOC is linked to photosynthesis by the forest ecosystem
      • Biogenic SOA significantly contributed to particle growth of PM1 WSOC
      • Alpha-pinene SOA and WSOC formation depends on temperature in daytime
    2. Characteristics of unconnected upward leaders initiated from tall structures observed in Guangzhou

      Weitao Lu, Luwen Chen, Yang Zhang, Ying Ma, Yan Gao, Qiyuan Yin, Shaodong Chen, Zhihui Huang and Yijun Zhang

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018035

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      Key Points

      • Cases and statistical analysis of unconnected upward positive leaders
      • Observation of lightning discharges striking a city with many tall structures
      • The data can help us estimate the effect of downward leader on upward leader
    3. GOES-10 microphysical retrievals in marine warm clouds: Multi-instrument validation and daytime cycle over the southeast Pacific

      David Painemal, Patrick Minnis, J. Kirk Ayers and Larry O'Neill

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017822

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      Key Points

      • GOES retrievals are consistent with in situ and other satellite observations
      • Optical thickness shows a diurnal and semidiurnal cycle
      • Effective radius shows a minimum near noon
    4. Precipitation driving of droplet concentration variability in marine low clouds

      Robert Wood, David Leon, Matthew Lebsock, Jefferson Snider and Antony D. Clarke

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018305

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      Key Points

      • Precip is a primary driver of cloud drop concentration variability in stratocumulus
      • Sinks are important in driving CCN variability in marine low clouds
      • Aerosol from the free troposphere is the primary source of CCN in the MBL
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    6. Influence of desert dust intrusions on ground-based and satellite-derived ultraviolet irradiance in southeastern Spain

      M. Antón, A. Valenzuela, R. Román, H. Lyamani, N. Krotkov, A. Arola, F. J. Olmo and L. Alados-Arboledas

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018056

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      Key Points

      • Decrease of UV irradiance during desert dust events is about 11% on average
      • OMI strongly overestimates (~22%) the ground-based UV data
      • Eight percentage points of the OMI bias is corrected by an off-line method
    7. Effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity and drizzle on remote sensing of cloud droplet effective radius: Case studies based on large-eddy simulations

      Zhibo Zhang, Andrew S. Ackerman, Graham Feingold, Steven Platnick, Robert Pincus and Huiwen Xue

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017655

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      Key Points

      • Sub-pixel inhomogeneity can cause strong uncertainty in MODIS cloud re retrieval
      • There is likely significant bias in the MODIS re,2.1 retrievals.
      • Sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity index can be used to identify this bias
    8. The HDO/H2O relationship in tropospheric water vapor in an idealized “last-saturation” model

      S. C. Sherwood and C. Risi

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018068

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      Key Points

      • The relationship between HDO and H2O in vapor is affected by clouds
      • This relationship can be captured by an idealized 2-D model
      • Internal vapor recycling is the key to HDO amount in the upper troposphere
    9. Modification of the IR sky temperature under different atmospheric conditions in an arid region in central Saudi Arabia: Experimental and theoretical justification

      A. H. Maghrabi

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017881

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      Key Points

      • We study the IR sky temperature in different atmospheric conditions
      • We use hourly data at the central site in Saudi Arabia over 2008-2010
      • Dusty conditions warm up the atmosphere
    10. Bright polar mesospheric clouds formed by main engine exhaust from the space shuttle's final launch

      Michael H. Stevens, Stefan Lossow, Jens Fiedler, Gerd Baumgarten, Franz-Josef Lübken, Kristofer Hallgren, Paul Hartogh, Cora E. Randall, Jerry Lumpe, Scott M. Bailey, R. Niciejewski, R. R. Meier, John M. C. Plane, Andrew J. Kochenash, Donal P. Murtagh and Christoph R. Englert

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017638

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      Key Points

      • Space shuttle main engine exhaust is rapidly transported to the Arctic
      • The exhaust creates unusually bright polar mesospheric clouds
      • Space traffic exhaust can form the brightest polar mesospheric clouds
    11. Asian dust height and infrared optical depth retrievals over land from hyperspectral longwave infrared radiances

      Zhigang Yao, Jun Li, Hyo-Jin Han, Allen Huang, B. J. Sohn and Peng Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017799

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      Key Points

      • Dust properties could be retrieved from AIRS over land.
      • Infrared optical depths from AIRS correlate favorably with MODIS DB results
      • Dust top heights from AIRS agree reasonably with lidar observations
    12. Assimilation of water vapor sensitive infrared brightness temperature observations during a high impact weather event

      Jason A. Otkin

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017568

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      Key Points

      • Assimilation of water vapor sensitive infrared observations improves forecasts
    13. Synchronized observations of cloud-to-ground lightning using VHF broadband interferometer and acoustic arrays

      Shi Qiu, Bi-Hua Zhou and Li-Hua Shi

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018542

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      Key Points

      • The first synchronized observation using VHF interferometer and acoustic arrays
      • Tearing sound is first located which may be emitted by the stepped leader
      • Quasi 3D localization of VHF interferometer could be achieved by single station
    14. Analysis of cloud-resolving simulations of a tropical mesoscale convective system observed during TWP-ICE: Vertical fluxes and draft properties in convective and stratiform regions

      Agnieszka A. Mrowiec, Catherine Rio, Ann M. Fridlind, Andrew S. Ackerman, Anthony D. Del Genio, Olivier M. Pauluis, Adam C. Varble and Jiwen Fan

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017759

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      Key Points

      • Convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes are correlated with convective area
      • Ratio of convective downdraft to updraft mass flux is ~0.5-0.6
      • Ratio of ice in convective downdrafts to updrafts is ~0.5 independent of species
  2. Climate and Dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. Inclusion of sea-surface temperature variation in the U.S. Navy ensemble-transform global ensemble prediction system

      J. G. McLay, M. K. Flatau, C. A. Reynolds, J. Cummings, T. Hogan and P. J. Flatau

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016937

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      Key Points

      • The ensemble transform scheme can be adapted to generate SST perturbations
      • The prognostic SST has a meaningful impact on near-surface atmospheric forecasts
      • There is benefit to inclusion of SST analysis perturbations in an ensemble
    2. Past and future wind climates over the contiguous USA based on the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program model suite

      S. C. Pryor, R. J. Barthelmie and J. T. Schoof

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017449

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      Key Points

      • RCMs exhibit some skill in depicting historical wind regimes
      • Dynamical downscaling 'adds value' in simulating wind climates
      • Simulations of intense and extreme wind speeds differ substantially with RCM
    3. A test of the advection-condensation model for subtropical water vapor using stable isotopologue observations from Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii

      John V. Hurley, Joseph Galewsky, John Worden and David Noone

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018029

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      Key Points

      • Water vapor stable isotopes are a function of transport since last saturation
      • Joint distribution of humidity and isotopes tell of the large-scale mixing
      • Large-scale mixing with Rayleigh fractionation describe subtropical isotopes
    4. Control of Saharan mineral dust transport to Barbados in winter by the Intertropical Convergence Zone over West Africa

      O. M. Doherty, N. Riemer and S. Hameed

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017767

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      Key Points

      • Winter dust load is controlled by position of ITCZ
      • ITCZ COA represents an improvement over traditional teleconnections
      • ITCZ drives dust load changes by changing regional circulation
    5. Influence of large scale oscillations on upwelling-favorable coastal wind off central Chile

      David A. Rahn

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018016

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      Key Points

      • Phases of AAO, ENSO, and MJO linked to alongshore wind off central Chile
      • Constructive/deconstructive interference between large scale oscillations
      • Significant modification of alongshore wind distribution
    6. On the angular variation of thermal infrared emissivity of inorganic soils

      Vicente García-Santos, Enric Valor, Vicente Caselles, M. Ángeles Burgos and César Coll

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017931

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      Key Points

      • Measuring the emissivity angular inorganic soils
      • To analyze the impact of angular emissivity on surface temperature
      • To parameterize the angular thermal emissivity of inorganic soils
    7. The structure, dynamics and tropospheric signature of the Polar Annular Mode

      Robert X. Black, Brent McDaniel and Yun-Young Lee

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017900

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      Key Points

      • PAM events provide a long-lasting impact on regional tropospheric conditions
      • Robust stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling occurs during PAM onset
      • Stratospheric preconditioning occurs prior to PAM onset
    8. Reconstructing the 20th century high-resolution climate of the southeastern United States

      Steven M. DiNapoli and Vasubandhu Misra

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018303

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      Key Points

      • The 20th century reanalysis is downscaled over the southeast United States
      • The 10-km grid of the downscaled data can resolve mesoscale features
      • The downscaled reanalysis data is validated via comparison with observations
    9. Clear-sky thermodynamic and radiative anomalies over a sea ice sensitive region of the Arctic

      Joseph Sedlar and Abhay Devasthale

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017754

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      Key Points

      • Remote sensing of atmospheric thermodynamic anomalies
      • Radiation anomalies associated with thermodynamics estimated
      • Sea ice thickness changes for 2007 from thermodynamic and radiative anomalies
    10. Introduction to Suomi national polar-orbiting partnership advanced technology microwave sounder for numerical weather prediction and tropical cyclone applications

      F. Weng, X. Zou, X. Wang, S. Yang and M. D. Goldberg

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018144

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      Key Points

      • Introduce new ATMS features
      • Depict ATMS bias characteristics for temperature sounding channels
      • Retrieve cloud liquid water path using ATMS observations
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      Upward lightning observations from towers in Rapid City, South Dakota and comparison with National Lightning Detection Network data, 2004–2010

      Tom A. Warner, Kenneth L. Cummins and Richard E. Orville

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018346

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      Key Points

      • Summer season upward positive leaders triggered by nearby +CG flashes
      • Impulsive connections by recoil leaders that form on cutoff upward branches
      • Less than half upward positive leaders produced NLDN-indicated impulsive events
    12. On the influence of North Pacific sea surface temperature on the Arctic winter climate

      M. M. Hurwitz, P. A. Newman and C. I. Garfinkel

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017819

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      Key Points

      • Enhanced North Pacific SSTs inhibit tropospheric planetary wave driving
      • Enhanced North Pacific SSTs lead to a cooler polar stratosphere in late winter
      • North Pacific SSTs affect Arctic total ozone and clear-sky UV flux in spring
    13. The influence of Indian Ocean atmospheric circulation on Warm Pool hydroclimate during the Holocene epoch

      J. E. Tierney, D. W. Oppo, A. N. LeGrande, Y. Huang, Y. Rosenthal and B. K. Linsley

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018060

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      Key Points

      • The dDwax data from Sulawesi, Indonesia indicate no change in Holocene hydroclimate
      • OAGCM simulations are compared to Borneo, Sulawesi, and Flores isotope records
      • The Indian monsoon and Walker Circulation influence Borneo hydroclimate
    14. Atmospheric waves and their interactions in the thermospheric neutral wind as observed by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar

      Chunming Huang, Shaodong Zhang, Qihou Zhou, Fan Yi and Kaiming Huang

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018241

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      Key Points

      • Strong interactions between the diurnal tide and gravity waves are observed
      • Tidal oscillations are modulated at planetary-wave periods
      • Tidal energy is redistributed among different tidal components
    15. Birth of ball lightning

      J. J. Lowke, D. Smith, K. E. Nelson, R. W. Crompton and A. B. Murphy

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017921

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      Key Points

      • Observation of ball lightning birth
      • Theory of ball lightning birth
      • Ball lightning: electric discharge caused by atmospheric ions impinging on insulators
    16. Why might stratospheric sudden warmings occur with similar frequency in El Niño and La Niña winters?

      C. I. Garfinkel, A. H. Butler, D. W. Waugh, M. M. Hurwitz and L. M. Polvani

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017777

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      Key Points

      • EN and LN cause more frequent SSW despite having opposite effects in winter-mean
      • ENSO teleconnections are consistent with this seeming paradox
      • Model differences in ENSO-SSW frequency are related to modeled teleconnections
    17. Aviation-induced radiative forcing and surface temperature change in dependency of the emission altitude

      C. Frömming, M. Ponater, K. Dahlmann, V. Grewe, D. S. Lee and R. Sausen

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018204

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      Key Points

      • Aviation climate impact is highly dependent on flight altitudes
      • Generally lower flight levels reduce the global mean climate impact at present
      • Tradeoffs between short- and long- lived components depend on the future scenario
    18. Assessing the value of Microwave Sounding Unit–radiosonde comparisons in ascertaining errors in climate data records of tropospheric temperatures

      Carl A. Mears, Frank J. Wentz and Peter W. Thorne

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017710

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      Key Points

      • Short-term comparisons between radiosondes and satellites are inconclusive
      • Different homogenized radiosonde data sets are similar to each other
      • Satellite derived data sets are similar to each other
    19. Nonlinear impact of the Arctic Oscillation on extratropical surface air temperature

      Hye-Young Son, Wonsun Park, Jee-Hoon Jeong, Sang-Wook Yeh, Baek-Min Kim, Minho Kwon and Jong-Seong Kug

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018090

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      Key Points

      • We investigate nonlinear impacts of the AO on surface air temperature
      • The response becomes nonlinear for the strong AO events
      • The nonlinear advection is a critical component for the nonlinear SAT response
    20. Quasi-analytical treatment of spatially averaged radiation transfer in complex terrain

      H. Löwe and N. Helbig

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018181

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      Key Points

      • Approximate solution of the radiosity equation on Gaussian random fields
      • Spatially averaged fluxes are related to a level-crossing probability
      • Method enables a computationally cheap parametrization of terrain effects
  3. Composition and Chemistry

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. Distribution of methane in the tropical upper troposphere measured by CARIBIC and CONTRAIL aircraft

      T. J. Schuck, K. Ishijima, P. K. Patra, A. K. Baker, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, Y. Sawa, T. Umezawa, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer and J. Lelieveld

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018199

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      Key Points

      • Analysis of 6 years in situ CH4 data from CARIBIC and CONTRAIL
      • CH4 in the UT has a high degree of variability, spatially and seasonally
      • Seasonal cycles over tropical Asia are influenced by the monsoon circulation
    2. Observations of isoprene, methacrolein (MAC) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) at a mountain site in Hong Kong

      H. Guo, Z. H. Ling, I. J. Simpson, D. R. Blake and D. W. Wang

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017750

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      Key Points

      • Both isoprene and regional sources contributed to MVK and MAC
      • Contribution of isoprene oxidation to ozone production was 12.5%
      • Isoprene photochemical ages were between 10 and 64 min
    3. Diagnostic tools for evaluating quasi-horizontal transport in global-scale chemistry models

      Huikyo Lee, Daeok Youn, Kenneth O. Patten, Seth C. Olsen and Donald J. Wuebbles

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017644

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      Key Points

      • A comprehensive set of effective methods for model evaluation in the UTLS
    4. Primary and secondary organic aerosols in Fresno, California during wintertime: Results from high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

      Xinlei Ge, Ari Setyan, Yele Sun and Qi Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018026

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      Key Points

      • POA was emitted by three main sources: traffic, cooking, and residential heating
      • POA dominated aerosol composition, especially in ultrafine particles
      • SOA elevated at night, likely influenced by aqueous-phase processing

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