Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)

16 November 2012

Volume 117, Issue D21

Currently known as: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

  1. Aerosol and Clouds

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. Infrasonic propagation from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption: Investigating the influence of stratospheric solar tides

      D. N. Green, R. S. Matoza, J. Vergoz and A. Le Pichon

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017988

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      Key Points

      • Diurnal variability in long-range infrasound properties from volcanic source
      • Stratospheric solar tidal winds generate diurnal infrasound signal variations
      • Signal interpretation complicated by along-path sound speed variations
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      Aerosol profiling with lidar in the Amazon Basin during the wet and dry season

      H. Baars, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, B. Heese, D. Müller, P. Artaxo, M. Paixao, T. Pauliquevis and R. Souza

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018338

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      Key Points

      • First time for continuous aerosol profiling in Amazonia covering all seasons
      • Documentation of smoke and dust transport from Africa to Amazonia
      • First optical characterization of Amazonian aerosols at ambient conditions
    3. Spectral aerosol direct radiative forcing from airborne radiative measurements during CalNex and ARCTAS

      Samuel E. LeBlanc, K. S. Schmidt, P. Pilewskie, J. Redemann, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, J. M. Langridge and D. A. Lack

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018106

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      Key Points

      • The range of aircraft-derived aerosol radiative forcing over various regions
      • Derive spectral forcing efficiency from airborne irradiance measurements
      • Compare irradiance-derived aerosol optical properties with in-situ measurements
  2. Climate and Dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. Forecasting the number of extreme daily events out to a decade ahead

      Rosie Eade, Emily Hamilton, Doug M. Smith, Richard J. Graham and Adam A. Scaife

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018015

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      Key Points

      • Decadal predictions of temperature and precipitation extremes do have skill
      • Beyond the first year, skill arises largely from external forcings
      • Extremes can be more skillful than the mean where trends in extremes are greater
    2. Comparison of dynamically and statistically downscaled seasonal climate forecasts for the cold season over the United States

      Jin-Ho Yoon, L. Ruby Leung and James Correia Jr.

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017650

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      Key Points

      • Comparison of dynamic and statistical downscaling methods using multi-RCMs
      • RCMs add extra value in seasonal prediction application
      • A hybrid system combining both dynamic and statistical methods maximizes skill
    3. Tracking Kelvin waves from the equatorial troposphere into the stratosphere

      T. J. Flannaghan and S. Fueglistaler

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017448

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      Key Points

      • We present a method which is able to track Kelvin waves
      • Tracking is required to give a full statistical description of Kelvin waves
      • Vertical wave propagation in the TTL occurs over Atlantic and Indian Oceans
    4. A new fractional snow-covered area parameterization for the Community Land Model and its effect on the surface energy balance

      S. C. Swenson and D. M. Lawrence

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018178

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      Key Points

      • Current CLM snow cover fraction (SCF) is biased
      • New data better constrain SCF
      • New parameterization impacts surface energy balance
    5. Modeling and understanding persistence of climate variability

      D. I. Vyushin, P. J. Kushner and Francis Zwiers

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018240

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      Key Points

      • Climate persistence falls between AR1 and power-law statistical representations
      • The power-law (AR1) provides an upper (lower) bound on climate persistence
      • CMIP3 simulations capture the observed spatial distribution of persistence well
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    7. Numerical simulation of gravity wave breaking in the lower thermosphere

      Thomas S. Lund and David C. Fritts

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017536

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      Key Points

      • Numerical simulation of gravity wave breaking in compressible atmosphere
      • Wave breaking is predicted to exist above 150 km
      • Wave momentum deposition has a profound effect on the mean wind
    8. Nested high-resolution modeling of the impact of urbanization on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China

      Jun Wang, Jinming Feng, Zhongwei Yan, Yonghong Hu and Gensuo Jia

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018226

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      Key Points

      • Urban expansion increases the temperature in urban area by about 1K
      • The heat stress intensity of urban area is enhanced by about 0.5 units
      • Urbanization leads to less convective available potential energy
    9. A global morphology of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere revealed by the 8-year SABER/TIMED data

      Y. Zhang, J. Xiong, L. Liu and W. Wan

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017676

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      Key Points

      • Seasonal global distributions of gravity wave potential energy are compared
      • Gravity wave interannual enhancements, related to QBO, are observed at equator
      • The deep convection is one of the major sources for the tropical gravity wave
    10. Contribution of stratospheric warmings to temperature trends in the middle atmosphere from the lidar series obtained at Haute-Provence Observatory (44°N)

      Guillaume Angot, Philippe Keckhut, Alain Hauchecorne and Chantal Claud

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017631

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      Key Points

      • New method to calculate temperature trends, an alternative to mean calculations
      • Larger stratospheric cooling using this method
      • Composite evolutions of stratospheric warmings
  3. Composition and Chemistry

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Climate and Dynamics
    4. Composition and Chemistry
    1. The sea breeze/land breeze circulation in Los Angeles and its influence on nitryl chloride production in this region

      N. L. Wagner, T. P. Riedel, J. M. Roberts, J. A. Thornton, W. M. Angevine, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, A. Vlasenko, S. M. Li, W. P. Dubé, D. J. Coffman, D. M. Bon, J. A. de Gouw, W. C. Kuster, J. B. Gilman and S. S. Brown

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017810

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      Key Points

      • The land breeze transports urban air off shore during the night
      • The urban plume in Santa Monica Bay contains ppb levels of ClNO2
      • ClNO2 is produced over Los Angeles and transported to Santa Monica Bay
    2. Holocene tephras highlight complexity of volcanic signals in Greenland ice cores

      Sarah E. Coulter, Jonathan R. Pilcher, Gill Plunkett, Mike Baillie, Valerie A. Hall, J. P. Steffensen, Bo M. Vinther, Henrik B. Clausen and Sigfus J. Johnsen

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017698

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      Key Points

      • We identify tephra from 14 mid- to late Holocene volcanic events in Greenland
      • We confirm the historical precision of GICC05 back to AD 1362
      • Tephras highlight issues in interpretation of acid signals in ice cores
    3. Experiments with the assimilation of fine aerosols using an ensemble Kalman filter

      Mariusz Pagowski and Georg A. Grell

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018333

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      Key Points

      • Positive effects of assimilation on PM2.5 prediction
      • Advantage of EnKF over 3D-VAR for PM2.5 forecasting
    4. Atmospheric carbon dioxide retrieved from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT): Comparison with ground-based TCCON observations and GEOS-Chem model calculations

      A. J. Cogan, H. Boesch, R. J. Parker, L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, J.-F. L. Blavier, N. M. Deutscher, R. Macatangay, J. Notholt, C. Roehl, T. Warneke and D. Wunch

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018087

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      Key Points

      • Bias and precision should be sufficient to allow improved surface flux estimates
      • Globally, regional differences are found to be small, except over desert regions
      • Retrievals should be useful for the inversion of CO2 surface fluxes
    5. CalNex cloud properties retrieved from a ship-based spectrometer and comparisons with satellite and aircraft retrieved cloud properties

      P. J. McBride, K. S. Schmidt, P. Pilewskie, A. Walther, A. K. Heidinger, D. E. Wolfe, C. W. Fairall and S. Lance

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017624

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      Key Points

      • Cloud properties are retrieved from ground-based spectral solar radiation
      • Ground-based retrievals are compared with in situ and spaceborne observations
      • Cloud statistics from surface are consistent with space-based statistics
    6. Springtime high surface ozone events over the western United States: Quantifying the role of stratospheric intrusions

      Meiyun Lin, Arlene M. Fiore, Owen R. Cooper, Larry W. Horowitz, Andrew O. Langford, Hiram Levy II, Bryan J. Johnson, Vaishali Naik, Samuel J. Oltmans and Christoph J. Senff

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018151

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      Key Points

      • Stratospheric intrusions can episodically increase surface ozone by 20-40 ppbv
      • These intrusion events can push ground-level ozone over the health-based limit
      • Global high-res model, satellite and in situ observations yield process insights
    7. On the gas-particle partitioning of soluble organic aerosol in two urban atmospheres with contrasting emissions: 2. Gas and particle phase formic acid

      Jiumeng Liu, Xiaolu Zhang, Eric T. Parker, Patrick R. Veres, James M. Roberts, Joost A. de Gouw, Patrick L. Hayes, Jose L. Jimenez, Jennifer G. Murphy, Raluca A. Ellis, L. Greg Huey and Rodney J. Weber

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017912

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      Key Points

      • Photochemical source for formic acid in both Los Angeles and Atlanta
      • Differences in formic acid absorbing phases observed in LA and Atlanta
      • Formic acid partitioning greatly under-predicted by thermodynamic model
    8. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K

      Bingbing Wang, Alexander Laskin, Tobias Roedel, Mary K. Gilles, Ryan C. Moffet, Alexei V. Tivanski and Daniel A. Knopf

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017446

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      Key Points

      • Field-collected urban aerosol particles are associated with organic matter
      • Water uptake and immersion freezing are determined by particle chemistry
      • Atmospheric particles form ice differently compared to lab-generated particles
    9. Long-term trends in nitrogen oxide emissions from motor vehicles at national, state, and air basin scales

      Brian C. McDonald, Timothy R. Dallmann, Elliot W. Martin and Robert A. Harley

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018304

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      Key Points

      • Gasoline NOx emissions decreasing steadily, 1990-2010
      • Diesel NOx emissions increasing or stable up to 2007
      • Diesel is dominant NOx source in California's San Joaquin Valley
    10. Multiyear trends in volatile organic compounds in Los Angeles, California: Five decades of decreasing emissions

      Carsten Warneke, Joost A. de Gouw, John S. Holloway, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Elliot Atlas, Don Blake, Michael Trainer and David D. Parrish

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017899

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      Key Points

      • VOCs and CO have decreased by a large factor in LA since 1960s
      • VOC emission ratios have not changed
      • Rate of decrease in London is more rapid, but started later
    11. On the gas-particle partitioning of soluble organic aerosol in two urban atmospheres with contrasting emissions: 1. Bulk water-soluble organic carbon

      Xiaolu Zhang, Jiumeng Liu, Eric T. Parker, Patrick L. Hayes, Jose L. Jimenez, Joost A. de Gouw, James H. Flynn, Nicole Grossberg, Barry L. Lefer and Rodney J. Weber

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017908

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      Key Points

      • Contrasting WSOC gas/particle partitioning was observed in Atlanta and LA
      • Different VOC mixtures between the two environments are likely the cause
      • Provided evidence of SOA formation through an equilibrium partitioning process
    12. Measurements of ocean derived aerosol off the coast of California

      T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, A. A. Frossard, L. M. Russell, J. Hakala, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, D. S. Covert, C. D. Cappa, S.-M. Li, K. L. Hayden, I. Nuaaman, R. McLaren, P. Massoli, M. R. Canagaratna, T. B. Onasch, D. Sueper, D. R. Worsnop and W. C. Keene

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017588

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      Key Points

      • The ocean is a source of sub 100nm particles to the atmosphere
      • Hygroscopically the particles behave like an internal mixture of sea salt/organic
      • Organic mass fraction did not correlate with chlorophyll
    13. The magnitude of the effect of air pollution on sunshine hours in China

      Yawen Wang, Yonghui Yang, Na Zhao, Chen Liu and Qinxue Wang

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016753

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      Key Points

      • Air pollution negatively influences sunshine hour variation
      • API is a critical indicator in studying air pollution effect on sunshine hours
      • Sunshine hours significantly decline 16.7% for the 1960s-2000s in 86% of China
    14. Black carbon aerosol over the Los Angeles Basin during CalNex

      A. R. Metcalf, J. S. Craven, J. J. Ensberg, J. Brioude, W. Angevine, A. Sorooshian, H. T. Duong, H. H. Jonsson, R. C. Flagan and J. H. Seinfeld

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD017255

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      Key Points

      • Black carbon aerosol levels in the Los Angeles Basin are reported for May, 2010
      • Coatings on BC aerosol are likely organics and increase with plume age
      • Detailed analysis of the BC mixing state reveal two size modes in the LA Basin
    15. Hygroscopicity and composition of California CCN during summer 2010

      R. H. Moore, K. Cerully, R. Bahreini, C. A. Brock, A. M. Middlebrook and A. Nenes

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD017352

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      Key Points

      • Hygroscopicity varied little during the period
      • The hygroscopicity is characteristic of aged organics
      • Mixing state and composition simplifications lead to 35-75% CCN overprediction
    16. Evolution of aerosol properties impacting visibility and direct climate forcing in an ammonia-rich urban environment

      Justin M. Langridge, Daniel Lack, Charles A. Brock, Roya Bahreini, Ann M. Middlebrook, J. Andrew Neuman, John B. Nowak, Anne E. Perring, Joshua P. Schwarz, J. Ryan Spackman, John S. Holloway, Ilana B. Pollack, Thomas B. Ryerson, James M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, Joost A. de Gouw, Michael K. Trainer and Daniel M. Murphy

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD017116

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      Key Points

      • The visibility and climate impacts of aerosol change with aging
      • Ammonium nitrate formation/partitioning is important in the Los Angeles region
    17. Nanoparticle chemical composition and diurnal dependence at the CalNex Los Angeles ground site

      M. Ross Pennington, Joseph P. Klems, Bryan R. Bzdek and Murray V. Johnston

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD017061

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      Key Points

      • Abrupt increase in nanoparticle number concentration during the afternoon
      • Nanoparticles contain enhanced sulfur and silicon during the afternoon
      • Composition changes suggest photo-processing of primary vehicle emissions.
    18. Observations of ozone transport from the free troposphere to the Los Angeles basin

      J. A. Neuman, M. Trainer, K. C. Aikin, W. M. Angevine, J. Brioude, S. S. Brown, J. A. de Gouw, W. P. Dube, J. H. Flynn, M. Graus, J. S. Holloway, B. L. Lefer, P. Nedelec, J. B. Nowak, D. D. Parrish, I. B. Pollack, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, H. Smit, V. Thouret and N. L. Wagner

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016919

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      Key Points

      • Air mass chemical composition over Los Angeles Basin measured from aircraft
      • Upper tropospheric influence increased ozone in the lower free troposphere
      • Downward mixing of ozone-rich air increased ozone in California
    19. Formation and growth of ultrafine particles from secondary sources in Bakersfield, California

      Lars Ahlm, Shang Liu, Douglas A. Day, Lynn M. Russell, Robin Weber, Drew R. Gentner, Allen H. Goldstein, Josh P. DiGangi, Samuel B. Henry, Frank N. Keutsch, Trevor C. VandenBoer, Milos Z. Markovic, Jennifer G. Murphy, Xinrong Ren and Scott Scheller

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD017144

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      Key Points

      • Ultrafine particle growth events were dominated by organic components
      • Particle number concentration was controlled by new particle formation
      • Ultrafine particles mass was correlated with formaldehyde and glyoxal
    20. Transport of Asian ozone pollution into surface air over the western United States in spring

      Meiyun Lin, Arlene M. Fiore, Larry W. Horowitz, Owen R. Cooper, Vaishali Naik, John Holloway, Bryan J. Johnson, Ann M. Middlebrook, Samuel J. Oltmans, Ilana B. Pollack, Tomas B. Ryerson, Juying X. Warner, Christine Wiedinmyer, John Wilson and Bruce Wyman

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016961

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      Key Points

      • Using a high-resolution global chemistry-climate model and observations
      • Asian pollution contributes to high-O3 events in western U.S. surface air
      • Develop a space-based indicator to inform Asian influence on U.S. surface O3
    21. Stratospheric influence on surface ozone in the Los Angeles area during late spring and early summer of 2010

      A. O. Langford, J. Brioude, O. R. Cooper, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez II, R. M. Hardesty, B. J. Johnson and S. J. Oltmans

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016766

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      Key Points

      • Stratosphere-troposphere transport can influence surface ozone
      • Background ozone must be considered in urban areas
      • Transport cannot be neglected in air quality studies
    22. Airborne and ground-based observations of a weekend effect in ozone, precursors, and oxidation products in the California South Coast Air Basin

      I. B. Pollack, T. B. Ryerson, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, A. E. Andrews, E. L. Atlas, D. R. Blake, S. S. Brown, R. Commane, B. C. Daube, J. A. de Gouw, W. P. Dubé, J. Flynn, G. J. Frost, J. B. Gilman, N. Grossberg, J. S. Holloway, J. Kofler, E. A. Kort, W. C. Kuster, P. M. Lang, B. Lefer, R. A. Lueb, J. A. Neuman, J. B. Nowak, P. C. Novelli, J. Peischl, A. E. Perring, J. M. Roberts, G. Santoni, J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, N. L. Wagner, C. Warneke, R. A. Washenfelder, S. C. Wofsy and B. Xiang

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016772

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      Key Points

      • A weekend ozone effect is observed in the South Coast Air Basin
      • Reductions in NOx emissions drive weekday and weekend differences in ozone
      • Photochemical ozone production contributes to observed weekend ozone levels

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