Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 1

16 January 2013

Volume 118, Issue 1

Pages 1–242

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Reply
    1. Climate and Dynamics

      Nowcasting severe convective activity over southeast India using ground-based microwave radiometer observations (pages 1–13)

      A. Madhulatha, M. Rajeevan, M. Venkat Ratnam, Jyoti Bhate and C. V. Naidu

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018174

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      Key Points

      • Validation of radiometer data with radiosonde
      • Corelation between lightning activity and instability indices
      • Nowcasting scheme for severe convection using radiometer data
    2. A bending angle forward operator for global positioning system radio occultation measurements (pages 14–28)

      L. Cucurull, J. C. Derber and R. J. Purser

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017782

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      Key-points

      • implementation of a new forward operator for GPS RO assimilation
      • benefits of the new forward operator
      • detail analysis of the performance of the new forward operator
    3. Comparison of TRMM precipitation radar and microwave imager rainfall retrievals in tropical cyclone inner cores and rainbands (pages 29–42)

      Joseph P. Zagrodnik and Haiyan Jiang

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017919

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      Key Points

      • The PR produces larger rain rates that TMI in inner cores and inner bands
      • The algorithm difference is most closely correlated with PR refl. >40 dBZ
      • The TMI 2A12 algorithm may poorly measure the rain rate in the inner cores
    4. Variability of the surface radiation budget over the United States from 1996 through 2011 from high-quality measurements (pages 43–53)

      John A. Augustine and Ellsworth G. Dutton

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018551

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      Key Points

      • The SRB over the U.S. increased by 8.2 Wm^-2 per decade from 1996 to 2011
      • The increase in U.S. SRB from 1996 to 2011 was dominated by solar brightening
      • Interannual variability of SRB components masks long-term climate signals
    5. Characteristics of tropical and subtropical atmospheric moistening derived from Lagrangian mass balance constrained by measurements of HDO and H2O (pages 54–72)

      Derek Brown, John Worden and David Noone

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018507

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      • HDO/H2O ratios can enhance understanding of moistening processes
      • Local moistening via mixing is regionally important on short timescales
      • Moisture recycling imprints on the isotopic composition of detrained water vapor
    6. Precipitation in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya: Observations and future scenarios (pages 85–100)

      E. Palazzi, J. von Hardenberg and A. Provenzale

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018697

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      Key Points

      • Precipitation
      • Hydrological cycle
      • Himalaya
      • EC-Earth
    7. Correcting diurnal cycle aliasing in satellite microwave humidity sounder measurements (pages 101–113)

      Ajil Kottayil, Viju O. John and Stefan A. Buehler

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018545

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      Key Points

      • Climatological diurnal cycle of microwave humidity measurements
      • Greater impact of diurnal correction seen over land regions than ocean
      • A plausible trend in surface temperature after diurnal correction
    8. Evaluating CMIP5 models using AIRS tropospheric air temperature and specific humidity climatology (pages 114–134)

      Baijun Tian, Eric J. Fetzer, Brian H. Kahn, Joao Teixeira, Evan Manning and Thomas Hearty

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018607

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      Key Points

      • The AIRS/CMIP5 data are described and validated.
      • CMIP5 models are evaluated using AIRS data.
      • Double-ITCZ syndrome & upper-tropospheric cold bias exist in most CMIP5 models.
    9. Aerosol and Clouds

      Why does radar reflectivity tend to increase downward toward the ocean surface, but decrease downward toward the land surface? (pages 135–148)

      Chuntao Liu and Edward J. Zipser

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018134

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      Key Points

      • Reflectivity decreases/increases toward surface over land/ocean
      • dBZ decreases when high reflectivity above freezing level
      • Strength of updraft is important in dBZ slope
    10. Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects in the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM: aerosol-climate interactions due to prognostic versus prescribed aerosols (pages 149–169)

      C. A. Randles, P. R. Colarco and A. da Silva

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018388

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      Key points

      • Aerosol-climate interactions impacts are important for climate response
      • Remote response to aerosol-climate interactions suggests a dynamical link
      • Natural aerosol response is weaker and opposite in sign
    11. Aerosol effect on the warm rain formation process: Satellite observations and modeling (pages 170–184)

      Kentaroh Suzuki, Graeme L. Stephens and Matthew D. Lebsock

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50043

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      Key Points

      • Satellite observation analysis of aerosol effect on precipitation
      • Global model evaluation of aerosol effect on precipitation
      • Proposing a way of constraining microphysics parameterizations
    12. Exploring parameterization for turbulent entrainment-mixing processes in clouds (pages 185–194)

      Chunsong Lu, Yangang Liu, Shengjie Niu, Steven Krueger and Timothy Wagner

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018464

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      • Three measures of homogeneous mixing degree are newly defined
      • Relationship between homogeneous mixing degree and scale number is established
      • A new parameterization of entrainment-mixing processes is advanced
    13. Composition and Chemistry

      Comparison of a photochemical model with observations of mesospheric hydroxyl and ozone (pages 195–207)

      David E. Siskind, Michael H. Stevens, Christoph R. Englert and M. G. Mlynczak

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017971

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      Key Points

      • Comprehensive comparison of a model with both OH and ozone
      • Key chemical rates should be remeasured at mesospheric temperatures
      • Model underpredicts ozone, but OH comparison is good
    14. Shipboard measurements of gaseous elemental mercury along the coast of Central and Southern California (pages 208–219)

      P. S. Weiss-Penzias, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, T. S. Bates, C. Gaston, K. Prather, A. Vlasenko and S. M. Li

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018463

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      Key Points

      • Most GEM concentrations off the coast of Southern California were representative of background conditions.
      • Calculated GEM emissions were consistent with the 2008 Hg inventory for the SERRF incinerator facility.
      • A GEM flux of 0.017± 0.009 mmol m-2 d-1 was calculated from an ocean source in a region of coastal upwelling.
    15. Uncertainties and importance of sea spray composition on aerosol direct and indirect effects (pages 220–235)

      Kostas Tsigaridis, Dorothy Koch and Surabi Menon

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018165

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      Key Points

      • Understand sea-salt emissions uncertainties and impacts on marine aerosol
      • Quantify marine organic aerosol production sources and uncertainties
      • Study the marine aerosol composition and impact on AOD, CDNC and climate
  2. Reply

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Reply
    1. Composition and Chemistry

      Reply to comment on “Hydrocarbon emissions characterization in the Colorado Front Range—A pilot study” by Michael A. Levi (pages 236–242)

      Gabrielle Pétron, Gregory J. Frost, Michael K. Trainer, Benjamin R. Miller, Edward J. Dlugokencky and Pieter Tans

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018487

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