Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 23

16 December 2013

Volume 118, Issue 23

Pages 12,805–13,345

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Introduction to a Special Collection
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Climate and Dynamics

      Oxygen isotope signatures preserved in tree ring cellulose as a proxy for April–September precipitation in Fujian, the subtropical region of southeast China (pages 12,805–12,815)

      Chenxi Xu, Huaizhou Zheng, Takeshi Nakatsuka and Masaki Sano

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019803

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      Key Points

      • Tree ring oxygen isotope is a promising proxy to reconstruct rainfall
      • ENSO influence on southeast China is low during 1920–1960
      • Indian summer monsoon affect tree ring oxygen isotope in southeast China
    2. Snow and ice products from Suomi NPP VIIRS (pages 12,816–12,830)

      Jeffrey R. Key, Robert Mahoney, Yinghui Liu, Peter Romanov, Mark Tschudi, Igor Appel, James Maslanik, Dan Baldwin, Xuanji Wang and Paul Meade

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020459

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      Key Points

      • VIIRS snow and ice products generally meet accuracy requirements
    3. An analysis of ground shaking and transmission loss from infrasound generated by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (pages 12,831–12,851)

      Kristoffer T. Walker, Alexis Le Pichon, Tae Sung Kim, Catherine de Groot-Hedlin, Il-Young Che and Milton Garcés

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020187

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      Key Points

      • Infrasonic transmission loss generally follows a simple exponential decay law
      • Fine-scale structure due to gravity waves are required to explain amplitudes
      • Infrasound from ground shaking may be useful in the construction of ShakeMaps
    4. A noise-aware combination of dual-frequency measurements from GPS radio occultation (pages 12,852–12,868)

      Tae-Kwon Wee and Ying-Hwa Kuo

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019840

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      Key Points

      • Conventional Linear Combination of dual-frequency GPS RO data is suboptimal
      • A new generalized Noise-Aware Combination (NAC) is proposed
      • NAC shows a significant improvement over the Conventional method
    5. Residual layer effects on the modeling of convective boundary layer growth rates with a slab model using FIFE data (pages 12,869–12,878)

      Livia S. Freire and Nelson L. Dias

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50796

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      Key Points

      • Analysis of growth models for the CBL with a large data set
      • Good results are obtained with a standard model and accepted parameters
      • Choice of the lapse rate above CBL is essential for good model performance
    6. Positive lightning flashes recorded on the Säntis tower from May 2010 to January 2012 (pages 12,879–12,892)

      Carlos Romero, Farhad Rachidi, Marcos Rubinstein, Mario Paolone, Vladimir A. Rakov and Davide Pavanello

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020242

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      Key Points

      • An analysis is presented of currents from positive flashes to the Säntis tower
      • Two types of positive flashes were observed and characterized
      • The median transferred charge is much larger than in other instrumented towers
    7. Subtropical-polar jet interactions in Southern Plains dust storms (pages 12,893–12,914)

      Michael L. Kaplan, Ramesh K. Vellore, John M. Lewis, S. Jeffrey Underwood, Patricia M. Pauley, Jonathan E. Martin, Robert M. Rabin and R. Krishnan

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020345

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      Key Points

      • Understanding the connectivity between the dust storms
      • Merger of polar and subtropical jet streams
      • Mesoscale response to large-scale imbalance
    8. Intraseasonal variability and atmospheric controls on daily dust occurrence frequency over the central and western Sahara during the boreal summer (pages 12,915–12,926)

      Ian Ashpole and Richard Washington

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020267

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      Key Points

      • Characterize variability in daily dust detection frequency in SEVIRI
      • Days clearly divided by frequency of dust presence and location of dust
      • Advanced WAM = frequent dust presence, and dominant Harmattan = less dust
    9. Monitoring daily evapotranspiration in Northeast Asia using MODIS and a regional Land Data Assimilation System (pages 12,927–12,940)

      Keunchang Jang, Sinkyu Kang, Yoon-Jin Lim, Seungtaek Jeong, Joon Kim, John S. Kimball and Suk Young Hong

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020639

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      Key Points

      • Stand-alone clear-sky ET estimate using MODIS products was implemented at 1 km
      • Cloudy-sky ET was estimated by combining MODIS and Korean LDAS (KLDAS)
      • MODIS-KLDAS ET showed better performance than MOD16 ET in Northeast Asia
    10. The occurrence of cirrus clouds associated with eastward propagating equatorial n = 0 inertio-gravity and Kelvin waves in November 2011 during the CINDY2011/DYNAMO campaign (pages 12,941–12,947)

      Junko Suzuki, Masatomo Fujiwara, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Ryuichi Shirooka, Kunio Yoneyama, Masaki Katsumata, Ichiro Matsui and Nobuo Sugimoto

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019960

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      Key Points

      • TTL cirrus clouds were observed over the tropical Indian Ocean
      • Short-period equatorial waves affected the TTL cirrus clouds
      • Wave overlapping is important for the dehydration
    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Estimating aerodynamic roughness over complex surface terrain (pages 12,948–12,961)

      Joanna M. Nield, James King, Giles F. S. Wiggs, Julian Leyland, Robert G. Bryant, Richard C. Chiverrell, Stephen E. Darby, Frank D. Eckardt, David S. G. Thomas, Larisa H. Vircavs and Richard Washington

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020632

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      Key Points

      • TLS morphological roughness explains over 90% aerodynamic roughness variance
      • Element protrusion height is more important than spacing
      • Height can be used to estimate aerodynamic roughness for dust emission models
    12. Long-term memory in climate variability: A new look based on fractional integral techniques (pages 12,962–12,969)

      Naiming Yuan, Zuntao Fu and Shida Liu

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020776

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      Key Points

      • A new model, Fractional Integral Statistical Model is established
      • A picture of how the past states keep their impacts till far future is drawn
      • A novel interpretation of the climate long-term memory is reached
    13. Evaluation and assimilation of ATMS data in the ECMWF system (pages 12,970–12,980)

      Niels Bormann, Anne Fouilloux and William Bell

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020325

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      Key Points

      • ATMS data are of expected quality
      • They have a small positive forecast impact in a full DA system
      • In a depleted system, the impact is comparable to that of one AMSU-A/MHS
    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Impact of the November/December Arctic Oscillation on the following January temperature in East Asia (pages 12,981–12,998)

      Shengping He and Huijun Wang

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020525

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      Key Points

      • Nov and Dec AO impact the following January East Asian temperature
      • A horseshoe SSTA is induced by Nov/Dec AO
      • A Rossby wave and horseshoe SSTAs are found
    15. A modified moist potential vorticity, its properties, and application (pages 12,999–13,007)

      Jun Peng, Lifeng Zhang, Yun Zhang and Juan Zhu

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020204

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      Key Points

      • A modified moist potential vorticity and its tendency equation are derived
      • The effects of various nonconservative processes are explicitly considered
      • MMPV shows strong signals aligned with the distribution of precipitation
    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modulation of PDO on the predictability of the interannual variability of early summer rainfall over south China (pages 13,008–13,021)

      Wansuo Duan, Linye Song, Yun Li and Jiangyu Mao

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019862

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      Key Points

      • PDO modulation on the predictability of early summer rainfall over south China
    17. A new dynamic approach for statistical optimization of GNSS radio occultation bending angles for optimal climate monitoring utility (pages 13,022–13,040)

      Y. Li, G. Kirchengast, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, S. Wu, M. Schwaerz, J. Fritzer, S. Zhang, B. A. Carter and K. Zhang

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020763

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      Key Points

      • New dynamical statistical optimization algorithm for GNSS radio occultation
      • Allows for geographically variable and time-dependent error characteristics
      • Improves the quality of atmospheric profiles compared to existing algorithms
    18. Quantifying the transport of subcloud layer reactants by shallow cumulus clouds over the Amazon (pages 13,041–13,059)

      H. G. Ouwersloot, J. Vilà‒Guerau de Arellano, B. J. H. van Stratum, M. C. Krol and J. Lelieveld

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020431

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      Key Points

      • Transport by shallow convection can significantly affect atmospheric reactants
      • This transport of atmospheric compounds by active clouds can be parametrized
      • Heterogeneous surface conditions affect clouds and the needed parametrizations
    19. Similarity and difference of the two successive V6 and V7 TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis performance over China (pages 13,060–13,074)

      Sheng Chen, Yang Hong, Qing Cao, Jonathan J. Gourley, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Bin Yong, Yudong Tian, Zengxin Zhang, Yan Shen, Junjun Hu and Jill Hardy

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019964

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      Key Points

      • Quantified error structures of the latest two-version TRMM products over China
      • 3B42V7 effectively improves upon Version 6 products over China
      • 3B42RTV7 does not show much improvement over 3B42RTV6
    20. Network design for heavy rainfall analysis (pages 13,075–13,086)

      T. Rietsch, P. Naveau, N. Gilardi and A. Guillou

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020867

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      Key Points

      • The QBC algorithm is useful to do optimal design in an extreme value context
      • Stations located in the northern part of France are the least informative
    21. An energetic perspective on hydrological cycle changes in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (pages 13,087–13,102)

      Ben Kravitz, Philip J. Rasch, Piers M. Forster, Timothy Andrews, Jason N. S. Cole, Peter J. Irvine, Duoying Ji, Jón Egill Kristjánsson, John C. Moore, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Alan Robock, Balwinder Singh, Simone Tilmes, Shingo Watanabe and Jin-Ho Yoon

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020502

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      Key Points

      • Geoengineering feedback response is small
      • Geoengineering can limit ocean heat uptake in a high CO2 climate
      • Annual mean circulation changes under geoengineering may be small
  2. Introduction to a Special Collection

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Introduction to a Special Collection
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Climate and Dynamics

      An overview of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) (pages 13,103–13,107)

      Ben Kravitz, Alan Robock, Piers M. Forster, James M. Haywood, Mark G. Lawrence and Hauke Schmidt

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020569

      Key Points

      • GeoMIP has been quite successful with 13 models participating
      • Three new experiments on marine cloud brightening are planned
      • GeoMIP has improved understanding and highlighted research gaps
  3. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Introduction to a Special Collection
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Climate and Dynamics

      Noise performance of the CrIS instrument (pages 13,108–13,120)

      Vladimir Zavyalov, Mark Esplin, Deron Scott, Benjamin Esplin, Gail Bingham, Erik Hoffman, Christopher Lietzke, Joseph Predina, Rebecca Frain, Lawrence Suwinski, Yong Han, Charles Major, Brandon Graham and Lee Phillips

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020457

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      Key Points

      • CrIS calibration/validation efforts
      • On-orbit CrIS instrument noise performance
      • Imaginary noise analysis to assess instrument performance
    2. Oscillation modes of humidity over the Amazon basin derived from GPS RO profiles (pages 13,121–13,127)

      R. Hierro, P. Llamedo, A. de la Torre and P. Alexander

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020758

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      Key Points

      • Humidity oscillation modes over Amazon basin is verified
      • GPS-RO allows to determine the variability of water vapor over South America
      • A decreasing trend of humidity is found over Amazon basin
    3. A global view of the atmospheric lunar semidiurnal tide (pages 13,128–13,139)

      A. R. Paulino, P. P. Batista and I. S. Batista

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019818

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      Key Points

      • The lunar tide achieves maximum amplitudes in the height of ionospheric E region
      • The lunar tide presented an asymmetric behavior in relation to the equator
      • The lunar semidiurnal tide showed a significant longitudinal variability
    4. Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE (pages 13,140–13,157)

      Ziwei Xu, Shaomin Liu, Xin Li, Shengjin Shi, Jiemin Wang, Zhongli Zhu, Tongren Xu, Weizhen Wang and Mingguo Ma

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020260

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      Key Points

      • Intercomparison of radiometers
      • Intercomparison of eddy covariance systems
      • Intercomparison of large aperture scintillometers
    5. Aerosol and Clouds

      Rocket-and-wire triggered lightning in 2012 tropical storm Debby in the absence of natural lightning (pages 13,158–13,174)

      J. T. Pilkey, M. A. Uman, J. D. Hill, T. Ngin, W. R. Gamerota, D. M. Jordan, W. Rison, P. R. Krehbiel, H. E. Edens, M. I. Biggerstaff and P. Hyland

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020501

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      Key Points

      • Lightning triggered in the complete absence of any natural lightning activity
      • Four return strokes originated at an altitude below the 0° level
      • Flash exhibited high peak current strokes and long-duration continuing currents
    6. Vertical transport mechanisms of black carbon over East Asia in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign (pages 13,175–13,198)

      N. Oshima, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, H. Nakamura, N. Moteki, H. Matsui, N. Takegawa and K. Kita

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020262

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      Key Points

      • Modified CMAQ model reproduces wet removal features of BC observed by aircraft
      • Cyclone, convection, and orographic lifting are major uplifting mechanisms of BC
      • We identified major transport pathways for BC export from East Asia in spring
    7. Arctic multilayered, mixed-phase cloud processes revealed in millimeter-wave cloud radar Doppler spectra (pages 13,199–13,213)

      Johannes Verlinde, Mahlon P. Rambukkange, Eugene E. Clothiaux, Greg M. McFarquhar and Edwin W. Eloranta

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020183

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      Key Points

      • Embedded liquid-cloud layers exist in well-mixed and absolutely stable layers
      • Most embedded liquid layers contained drizzle
      • Precipitation from higher layers changes embedded layer microphysical processes
    8. Analysis of ATMS striping noise from its Earth scene observations (pages 13,214–13,229)

      Zhengkun Qin, Xiaolei Zou and Fuzhong Weng

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020399

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      Key Points

      • Striping noise is found not only in ATMS observations but also AMSU-B and MHS
      • A new method is proposed for extracting the striping noise from the observations
      • Same magnitude striping noise is found in Earth scene data and maneuver data
    9. The expected performance of cloud optical and microphysical properties derived from Suomi NPP VIIRS day/night band lunar reflectance (pages 13,230–13,240)

      Andi Walther, Andrew K. Heidinger and Steven Miller

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020478

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      Key Points

      • Retrieval to derive nighttime cloud properties from lunar reflectance
      • Use of Day/Night band of VIIRS instrument
    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comparison of aerosol optical depth between CALIOP and MODIS-Aqua for CALIOP aerosol subtypes over the ocean (pages 13,241–13,252)

      Man-Hae Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Soon-Chang Yoon and Ali H. Omar

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019527

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      Key Points

      • The mean MODIS AOD is 63% larger than that of CALIOP AOD
      • AOD difference for clean marine is strongly related to the surface wind speed
      • AOD difference for dust has dependency on the particulate depolarization ratio
    11. Assessing temporal and spatial variations in atmospheric dust over Saudi Arabia through satellite, radiometric, and station data (pages 13,253–13,264)

      Yan Yu, Michael Notaro, Zhengyu Liu, Olga Kalashnikova, Fahad Alkolibi, Eyad Fadda and Fawzieh Bakhrjy

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020677

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      Key Points

      • Dust is most abundant in spring–summer over the desert regions in Saudi Arabia
      • Saudi Arabian dust is associated with locally strong wind and Saharan transport
      • Remote AOD is reliable for dustiness over desert but not over low dust regions
    12. Statistical relationship between surface PM10 concentration and aerosol optical depth over the Sahel as a function of weather type, using neural network methodology (pages 13,265–13,281)

      H. Yahi, B. Marticorena, S. Thiria, B. Chatenet, C. Schmechtig, J. L. Rajot and M. Crepon

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019465

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      Key Points

      • Identify specific recurrent weather types
      • Characteristics of the mineral dust concentrations over West Africa
      • The surface concentration can thus be inverted from the measured AOD
    13. Frost flower aerosol effects on Arctic wintertime longwave cloud radiative forcing (pages 13,282–13,291)

      Li Xu, Lynn M. Russell, Richard C. J. Somerville and Patricia K. Quinn

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020554

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      Key Points

      • We evaluate a parameterization of salt aerosol from frost flowers in WRF-Chem
      • The modeled salt explains half of the observed submicron salt aerosol
      • Longwave cloud forcing increases but does not add to Arctic surface warming
    14. Reconstruction of daily photosynthetically active radiation and its trends over China (pages 13,292–13,302)

      Wenjun Tang, Jun Qin, Kun Yang, Xiaolei Niu, Xiaotong Zhang, Yu Yu and Xudong Zhu

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020527

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      Key Points

      • A semiphysical PAR model was validated over China
      • The semiphysical model has higher accuracy than the locally calibrated model
      • A 50 year daily PAR data set at 716 CMA stations is reconstructed
    15. Composition and Chemistry

      Characteristics of water-soluble inorganic and organic ions in aerosols over the Southern Ocean and coastal East Antarctica during austral summer (pages 13,303–13,318)

      Guojie Xu, Yuan Gao, Qi Lin, Wei Li and Liqi Chen

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019496

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      Key Points

      • High MSA/nss SO42− over coastal Antarctica affected by high MSA concentration
      • Organic aerosol species were enriched in fine-mode particles
      • Nss SO42− MSA, oxalate, and formate in fine mode caused high Cl depletion
    16. The atmospheric HCHO budget at Dumont d'Urville (East Antarctica): Contribution of photochemical gas-phase production versus snow emissions (pages 13,319–13,337)

      Susanne Preunkert, Michel Legrand, Guillaume Pépy, Hubert Gallée, Anna Jones and Bruno Jourdain

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019864

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      Key Points

      • HCHO at coastal East Antarctica is mainly produced by CH4 oxidation in summer
      • Snow HCHO emission contributes more at west than at east coastal Antarctica
    17. Anomalous phenomena in Schumann resonance band observed in China before the 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan (pages 13,338–13,345)

      Hongjuan Zhou, Zhiquan Zhou, Xiaolin Qiao and Haiyan Yu

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020269

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      Key Points

      • SR anomalies before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake are studied
      • SR anomalies are simulated by FDTD method
      • Irregular conductivity by earthquake modifies the propagation of SR

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