Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 5

16 March 2013

Volume 118, Issue 5

Pages 2085–2454

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Corrections
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Climate and Dynamics

      Identification and ranking of extraordinary rainfall events over Northwest Italy: The role of Atlantic moisture (pages 2085–2097)

      Joaquim G. Pinto, Sven Ulbrich, Antonio Parodi, Roberto Rudari, Giorgio Boni and Uwe Ulbrich

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50179

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      Key Points

      • A objective ranking of extreme rainfall events for NW Italy is performed
      • Local rainfall intensity and spatial extension are considered for ranking
      • Six clusters are identified, also with different synoptic characterisation
    2. Updated analyses of temperature and precipitation extreme indices since the beginning of the twentieth century: The HadEX2 dataset (pages 2098–2118)

      M. G. Donat, L. V. Alexander, H. Yang, I. Durre, R. Vose, R. J. H. Dunn, K. M. Willett, E. Aguilar, M. Brunet, J. Caesar, B. Hewitson, C. Jack, A. M. G. Klein Tank, A. C. Kruger, J. Marengo, T. C. Peterson, M. Renom, C. Oria Rojas, M. Rusticucci, J. Salinger, A. S. Elrayah, S. S. Sekele, A. K. Srivastava, B. Trewin, C. Villarroel, L. A. Vincent, P. Zhai, X. Zhang and S. Kitching

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50150

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      Key Points

      • We present the most comprehensive land-based gridded dataset of climate extremes
      • Temperature extremes show consistent warming trends over the past century
      • Precipitation extremes are increasing in more areas than they are decreasing
    3. Antarctic ice sheet mass loss estimates using Modified Antarctic Mapping Mission surface flow observations (pages 2119–2135)

      Diandong Ren, Lance M. Leslie and Mervyn J. Lynch

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50222

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      Key Points

      • InSAR surface ice velocity cannot be used directly for mass balance estimation
      • It can be used to better tune model sensitive and uncertain parameters
      • With improved model parameter setting, dynamic mass balance can then be estimate
    4. A 2000-year dust storm record from Lake Sugan in the dust source area of arid China (pages 2149–2160)

      Fahu Chen, Mingrui Qiang, Aifeng Zhou, Shun Xiao, Jianhui Chen and Donghuai Sun

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50140

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      Key Points

      • A high-resolution record of dust storm was reconstrcuted based on Lake sediments
      • Dust storm occured mainly during cold and windy climatic episodes.
      • Wind strength plays an important role in dust emission in source area.
    5. ENSO dynamics: Low-dimensional-chaotic or stochastic? (pages 2161–2168)

      T. Živković and K. Rypdal

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50190

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      Key Points

      • Triggering of El-Nino/La-Nina is a stochastic process
      • Seasonal cycle in ENSO is associated with low-dimensional, nonlinear dynamics
      • ENSO can be modeled as an equatorial-wave equation with a stochastic forcing
    6. Geomagnetic activity signatures in wintertime stratosphere wind, temperature, and wave response (pages 2169–2183)

      A. Seppälä, H. Lu, M. A. Clilverd and C. J. Rodger

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50236

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      Key Points

      • Geomagnetic activity modulates wave propagation in NH winter.
      • With high geomagnetic activity polar vortex becomes more stable in late winter.
      • Effect on wave propagation is modulated by solar irradiance and QBO.
    7. Evaluation of TRMM 3B42 precipitation estimates of tropical cyclone rainfall using PACRAIN data (pages 2184–2196)

      Yingjun Chen, Elizabeth E. Ebert, Kevin J.E. Walsh and Noel E. Davidson

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50250

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      Key Points

      • This study evaluates TRMM 3B42 (V7) estimates of TC rainfall over ocean.
      • TRMM 3B42 is better able to estimate TC heavy rain over ocean than over land.
      • TRMM 3B42 is not able to capture orographic enhancement during TC passage.
    8. Third-order resonant interaction of atmospheric gravity waves (pages 2197–2206)

      Kai Ming Huang, Shao Dong Zhang, Fan Yi, Chun Ming Huang, Quan Gan, Yun Gong and Ye Hui Zhang

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50252

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      Key Points

      • Significant energy exchange occurs in third-order resonant interaction.
      • The interacting waves satisfy the third-order resonant conditions.
      • There are no intermediate and forced modes involved in the interaction.
    9. Influence of ENSO on precipitation in the East River basin, south China (pages 2207–2219)

      Qiang Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Vijay P. Singh, Chong-Yu Xu and Jingyun Deng

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50279

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      Key Points

      • Thorough investigation of ENSO impacts on regional precipitation
      • Highlights on regional hydrological response to global climate signals
      • Insightful viewpoints on regional water resources management
    10. Processes driving thunderstorms over the Agulhas Current (pages 2220–2228)

      Agatha M. de Boer, Andrew B. Collier and Rodrigo Caballero

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50238

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      Key Points

      • Lightning over the Agulhas Current is strongly associated with cyclonic activity
      • Lightning occurs in the warm sector of the cyclone from northerly moist winds
      • Cyclones can form from cut-off or coastal lows.
    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modeled rapid adjustments in diurnal temperature range response to CO2 and solar forcings (pages 2229–2240)

      Lawrence S. Jackson and Piers M. Forster

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50243

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      Key Points

      • Changes in DTR are sensitive to diurnal variations in CO2 forcing
      • Rapid adjustments in surface heat fluxes affect DTR response
      • DTR trends since 1950 influenced by these diurnal scale responses
    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A climatology of the stratopause in WACCM and the zonally asymmetric elevated stratopause (pages 2241–2254)

      J. A. France and V. L. Harvey

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50218

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      Key Points

      • WACCM reproduces the observed zonal asymmetries in stratopause structure
      • Elevated stratopause composite has a maximum height over the Canadian Arctic
      • WACCM stratopause climatology is generally in good agreement with observations
    13. The structure of the mesosphere during sudden stratospheric warmings in a global circulation model (pages 2255–2271)

      Christoph Zülicke and Erich Becker

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50219

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      Key points

      • The K
      • A composite of 5 events showed formation and downwelling of a new stratopause.
      • Anomalies appeared in the whole middle atmosphere at the same time (+/− 2 days).
    14. A new statistical approach to downscale wind speed distributions at a site in northern Europe (pages 2272–2283)

      Annemarie Devis, Nicole P. M. van Lipzig and Matthias Demuzere

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50245

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      Key Points

      • The skill of the GCM should be taken into account in the predictor selection.
      • ECHAM5 can represent hub-height wind speed pdf of Cabauw during winter.
      • During summer ECHAM5 wind at 500m need to be downscaled to hub-height.
    15. A hybrid dual-source scheme and trapezoid framework–based evapotranspiration model (HTEM) using satellite images: Algorithm and model test (pages 2284–2300)

      Yuting Yang and Songhao Shang

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50259

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      Key Points

      • A new two source remote sensing ET model (HTEM) were proposed.
      • HTEM estimated ET correctly at two validation sites
      • HTEM gave reasonable results of E and T partitioning at two sites.
  2. Corrections

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Corrections
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Climate and Dynamics

      You have free access to this content
      Correction to “Rain on small tropical islands” (pages 2301–2302)

      A. H. Sobel, C. D. Burleyson, S. E. Yuter and M. Biasutti

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50205

      Key Points

      • Observations of pitch-angle distributions with repeated probe configurations
      • Electron flux variations depend on probe relative to the flow
      • type of electron PAD depends on position relative to the neutral sheet
      This article corrects:

      Rain on small tropical islands

      Vol. 116, Issue D8, Article first published online: 16 APR 2011

    2. You have free access to this content
  3. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Corrections
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Aerosol and Clouds

      Development and validation of a black carbon mixing state resolved three-dimensional model: Aging processes and radiative impact (pages 2304–2326)

      H. Matsui, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, N. Moteki, J. D. Fast and R. A. Zaveri

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018446

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      Key Points

      • BC mixing state and aerosol size resolved WRF-chem (3D) model was developed
      • Model generally reproduced the observed features of BC mixing state in East Asia
      • The impact of BC mixing state on radiative parameter calculations was evaluated
    2. View-angle-dependent AIRS cloudiness and radiance variance: Analysis and interpretation (pages 2327–2339)

      Jie Gong and Dong L. Wu

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50120

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      Key Points

      • Upper-troposphere clouds have systematically tilted and banded structures.
      • Such banded and tilted structures can be observed from AIRS full-scan.
      • AIRS full-scan also contains information of cloud diurnal variations.
    3. Retrieval and validation of global, direct, and diffuse irradiance derived from SEVIRI satellite observations (pages 2340–2361)

      W. Greuell, J. F. Meirink and P. Wang

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50194

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      Key Points

      • SICCS retrieves irradiance with excellent temporal and spatial resolution.
      • SICCS estimates direct, diffuse, and global irradiance with very good accuracy.
      • The results are relatively insensitive to variations in input variables.
    4. Enhanced modern carbon and biogenic organic tracers in Northeast Asian aerosols during spring/summer (pages 2362–2371)

      Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Kimitaka Kawamura, Masao Uchida, Miyuki Kondo and Pingqing Fu

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50244

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      Key Points

      • We measured radiocarbon and organic tracers in atmospheric aerosols from Sapporo
      • Modern carbon is more enriched in water-soluble organic carbon than total carbon
      • Biological and photochemical activities are WSOC major sources in Northeast Asia
    5. Characterization of speciated aerosol direct radiative forcing over California (pages 2372–2388)

      Chun Zhao, L. Ruby Leung, Richard Easter, Jenny Hand and Jeremy Avise

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018364

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      Key Points

      • Evaluate model performance with various meteorological and aerosol measurements
      • Understand seasonal and spatial variation of speciated aerosols over California
      • Diagnose direct radiative forcings for individual aerosol species
    6. A global analysis on the view-angle dependence of plane-parallel oceanic liquid water cloud optical thickness using data synergy from MISR and MODIS (pages 2389–2403)

      Lusheng Liang and Larry Di Girolamo

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018201

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      Key Points

      • View angle dependent bias in warm cloud optical thickness is examined
      • Three factors tied to cloud spatial heterogeneity explain the biases
      • Cloud optical thickness underestimation in rainbow direction is observed
    7. Aviation-induced cirrus and radiation changes at diurnal timescales (pages 2404–2421)

      Ulrich Schumann and Kaspar Graf

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50184

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      Key Points

      • North Atlantic diurnal cycle of cirrus cover and longwave radiation identified
      • The observed diurnal changes are attributable to aviation cirrus
      • Global net radiative forcing from aviation induced cirrus quantified
    8. Long-term measurement of daytime atmospheric mixing layer height over Hong Kong (pages 2422–2433)

      Dongwei Yang, Chengcai Li, Alexis Kai-Hon Lau and Ying Li

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50251

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      Key Points

      • Long-term lidar MLH data in Hong Kong is obtained through a new algorithm.
      • MLH variation on various timescales is given and a decreasing trend is found.
      • An unusual phenomenon is associated with thermal stability and humidity.
    9. Composition and Chemistry

      Comparisons of mercury sources and atmospheric mercury processes between a coastal and inland site (pages 2434–2443)

      Irene Cheng, Leiming Zhang, Pierrette Blanchard, John Dalziel, Rob Tordon, Jiaoyan Huang and Thomas M. Holsen

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50169

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      Key Points

      • Combustion, industries, wildfires, and mercury condensation on particles were identified
      • Mercury evasion from the ocean is a source of mercury to a coastal site
      • GOM production by mercury-bromine reactions can occur at a coastal site
    10. Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis (pages 2444–2454)

      S. Ono, A. R. Whitehill and J. R. Lyons

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50183

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      Key Points

      • SO2 isotope self-shielding signatures in stratospheric sulfate aerosols
      • Laboratory SO2 photolysis to test the origin of mass-independent isotope effect
      • Sulfur isotope signatures linked to high SO2 loading in the past

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