Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 9

16 May 2013

Volume 118, Issue 9

Pages 3425–3917

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. Climate and Dynamics

      An assessment of the diurnal variation of upper tropospheric humidity in reanalysis data sets (pages 3425–3430)

      Eui-Seok Chung, Brian J. Soden, B. J. Sohn and Johannes Schmetz

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50345

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      Key Points

      • Diurnal variations of upper tropospheric humidity in reanalyses
      • Differences between satellite observations and reanalyses and among reanalyses
      • Phase bias related to deficiencies in the depiction of convective processes
    2. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis products of downward surface solar radiation over East Asia: Spatial and seasonal variations (pages 3431–3446)

      Binghao Jia, Zhenghui Xie, Aiguo Dai, Chunxiang Shi and Feng Chen

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50353

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      Key Points

      • The DSSR data from satellite and reanalysis products were evaluated.
      • The four datasets show similar spatial and seasonal variations of DSSR.
      • The causes of large discrepancies among different products were discussed.
    3. The effect of zonal asymmetries in the Brewer-Dobson circulation on ozone and water vapor distributions in the northern middle atmosphere (pages 3447–3466)

      D. Demirhan Bari, A. Gabriel, H. Körnich and D. W. H. Peters

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017709

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      Key Points

      • The three-dimensional structure of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is examined
      • The impact on stationary waves in ozone and water vapor is investigated
      • Results of model simulations, satellite data and assimilations are discussed
    4. Role of gravity waves in the forcing of quasi two-day waves in the mesosphere: An observational study (pages 3467–3485)

      M. Ern, P. Preusse, S. Kalisch, M. Kaufmann and M. Riese

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018208

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      Key Points

      • Observations of two-day waves, gravity waves, and zonal winds are compared
      • Two-day waves are forced by summertime jet instabilities seeded by gravity waves
      • EP fluxes and flux divergence of two-day waves are derived from observations
    5. The signature of the stratospheric Brewer‒Dobson circulation in tropospheric clouds (pages 3486–3494)

      Ying Li and David W.J. Thompson

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50339

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      Key Points

      • High-level clouds is linked to tropopause temperatures in the tropics and Arctic
      • The BDC influences near tropopause temperatures in both the tropics and Arctic
      • The linkages between the BDC and clouds in both regions are significant
    6. Atmospheric water balance over oceanic regions as estimated from satellite, merged, and reanalysis data (pages 3495–3505)

      Hyo-Jin Park, Dong-Bin Shin and Jung-Moon Yoo

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50414

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      Key Points

      • There was disagreement in the residual intensities from the different data sets
      • Consideration is needed when applying the data sets to water budget study
      • Anomalies of the residuals are in good agreement with their variability patterns
    7. Baffin Island snow extent sensitivity: Insights from a regional climate model (pages 3506–3519)

      Mira Berdahl and Alan Robock

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50249

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      Key Points

      • WRF is used to evaluate summer snow extent sensitivity on Baffin Island
      • The diurnal temperature cycle is exaggerated due to a deficit of cloud cover
      • When cooled, the snow expands to the same regions as during the Little Ice Age
    8. The role of a convective burst in the genesis of typhoon Hagupit (2008) (pages 3520–3533)

      Akihiko Murata

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50303

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      Key Points

      • Role of downdrafts in convective burst in tropical cyclone genesis is examined.
      • Downdrafts in convective burst result in warming in the lower troposphere.
      • The warming makes low-level inflow gain energy from the sea surface.
    9. Influences of the Atlantic Ocean on the summer precipitation of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (pages 3534–3544)

      Gao Ya, Wang Huijun and Li Shuanglin

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50290

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      Key Points

      • southern Tibetan Plateau summer rainfall
      • Atlantic Ocean teleconnection
      • wave train
    10. Intraseasonal variations in the tropical tropopause temperature revealed by cluster analysis of convective activity (pages 3545–3556)

      Eriko Nishimoto and Masato Shiotani

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50281

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      Key Points

      • Cluster analysis classifies ISOs by convective speed and longitudinal extent
      • A horseshoe-shaped temperature structure in the TTL changes with the ISO
      • The different ISO types would have different impacts on the dehydration process
    11. High-resolution multisite daily rainfall projections in India with statistical downscaling for climate change impacts assessment (pages 3557–3578)

      Kaustubh Salvi, Kannan S. and Subimal Ghosh

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50280

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      Key Points

      • First attempt of statistical downscaling for daily rainfall over entire India
      • The model captures the impacts of orography on monsoon rainfall
      • The projections show spatially non-uniform changes of rainfall in India
    12. Trends in surface air temperature and temperature extremes in the Great Basin during the 20th century from ground-based observations (pages 3579–3589)

      Guoping Tang and John A. Arnone III

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50360

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      Key Points

      • Daily minimum temperature increased significantly
      • Daily maximum temperature increased only slightly
      • Trend magnitudes were not correlated with elevation
    13. The contribution of African easterly waves to monsoon precipitation in the CMIP3 ensemble (pages 3590–3609)

      Christopher B. Skinner and Noah S. Diffenbaugh

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50363

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      Key Points

      • CMIP3 exhibits strong positive relationship between AEWs and precipitation.
      • AEWs contribute substantially to the spread in precipitation across CMIP3.
      • Inaccuracies in AEW-rainfall relationship may bias CMIP3 projections of rainfall
    14. Projections of extreme precipitation events in regional climate simulations for Europe and the Alpine Region (pages 3610–3626)

      J. Rajczak, P. Pall and C. Schär

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50297

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      Key Points

      • Heavy precipitation events are projected to intensify
      • changes across indices complex and disproportionate
      • dipole change patterns over Europe
    15. Aerosol and Clouds

      VPR correction of bright band effects in radar QPEs using polarimetric radar observations (pages 3627–3633)

      Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Pengfei Zhang and Qing Cao

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50364

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      Key Points

      • improving radar QPE with DP observations
      • enhance the performance of VPR correction of BB effects with DP observations
      • Dual polarimetric observations can stably provide the BB bottom .
    16. New airborne retrieval approach for trade wind cumulus properties under overlying cirrus (pages 3634–3649)

      F. Werner, H. Siebert, P. Pilewskie, T. Schmeissner, R. A. Shaw and M. Wendisch

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50334

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      Key Points

      • Cloud inhomogeneity and overlying cirrus affects retrieval
      • New retrieval approach mitigates effect of overlying cirrus
      • New Retrieval and in situ results compare within measurement uncertainty
    17. Hourly global irradiance from satellite data in Badajoz, Spain: Spatial and temporal dependence (pages 3650–3661)

      M. Nunez, A. Serrano and M. L. Cancillo

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50366

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      Key Points

      • The accuracy of the satellite estimate is a function of the averaging period
      • Within-pixel variability is substantial for averaging periods less than 1 h
      • Satellite RMS is due to model-induced errors (19.5%)and instrument errors (5.2%)
    18. Radiative forcing and climate response due to the presence of black carbon in cloud droplets (pages 3662–3675)

      Zhili Wang, Hua Zhang, Jiangnan Li, Xianwen Jing and Peng Lu

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50312

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      Key Points

      • Optical properties of clouds containing BC particles are calculated.
      • The mixing of BC in clouds causes positive radiative forcing at TOA.
      • The climate response for the presence of BC in clouds is investigated.
    19. Two years of free-tropospheric aerosol layers observed over Portugal by lidar (pages 3676–3686)

      J. Preißler, F. Wagner, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado and A. M. Silva

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50350

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      Key Points

      • Multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements from more than 2 years were analyzed.
      • An aerosol characterization was done, regarding optical particle properties.
      • Clear differences were found between the investigated aerosol classes.
    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A study of the shortwave direct aerosol forcing using ESSP/CALIPSO observation and GCM simulation (pages 3687–3708)

      Eiji Oikawa, Teruyuki Nakajima, Toshiro Inoue and David Winker

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50227

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      Key Points

      • Aerosol direct effect at TOA under clear-sky, cloudy-sky, and all-sky
      • Using data of space-borne CALIOP lidar and MODIS sensor
      • Low-level and high-level clouds change aerosol direct effect
    21. Seasonal variations of black carbon observed at the remote mountain site Happo in Japan (pages 3709–3722)

      X. Liu, Y. Kondo, K. Ram, H. Matsui, K. Nakagomi, T. Ikeda, N. Oshima, R. L. Verma, N. Takegawa, M. Koike and M. Kajino

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50317

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      Key Points

      • Accurate and long-term measurements of BC were conducted using a COSMOS at Happo
      • Period-averaged BC mass was 0.26 ug m-3 with a maximum of 0.35ug m-3 in spring
      • Source contribution and transport efficiency of BC was estimated by a 3D model
    22. Changes of ns-soot mixing states and shapes in an urban area during CalNex (pages 3723–3730)

      Kouji Adachi and Peter R. Buseck

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50321

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      Key Points

      • Ns-soot particles have a wide range of shapes, mixing states, and abundances
      • Shapes and mixing states of ns-soot vary within several hours
      • Aerosol particles attached to soot hardly affect its light absorption
    23. The role of time in heterogeneous freezing nucleation (pages 3731–3743)

      Timothy P. Wright and Markus D. Petters

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50365

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      Key Points

      • Ice nucleation experiments with residence times up to two days
      • New system simulation method for modeling heterogeneous ice nucleation
      • Time dependence of ice nucleation can be explained for proxy dust aerosol
    24. Composition and Chemistry

      Impacts of climate change on surface ozone and intercontinental ozone pollution: A multi-model study (pages 3744–3763)

      R. M. Doherty, O. Wild, D. T. Shindell, G. Zeng, I. A. MacKenzie, W. J. Collins, A. M. Fiore, D. S. Stevenson, F. J. Dentener, M. G. Schultz, P. Hess, R. G. Derwent and T. J. Keating

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50266

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      Key Points

      • Climate change impacts on surface O3 are reproduced by three key processes
      • O3 response driven by changes in O3 chemistry rather than changes in transport
      • Future O3 response to emission changes larger near source but smaller downwind
    25. Reassessing the variability in atmospheric H2 using the two-way nested TM5 model (pages 3764–3780)

      G. Pieterse, M. C. Krol, A. M. Batenburg, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, M. E. Popa, S. O'Doherty, A. Grant, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, R. L. Langenfelds, H. J. Wang, A. T. Vermeulen, M. Schmidt, C. Yver, A. Jordan, A. Engel, R. E. Fisher, D. Lowry, E. G. Nisbet, S. Reimann, M. K. Vollmer, M. Steinbacher, S. Hammer, G. Forster, W. T. Sturges and T. Röckmann

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50204

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      Key Points

      • Global and regional model validation for H2
      • Re-evaluation global budget of H2
      • Relevance of using common calibration scale
    26. The role of the solar irradiance variability in the evolution of the middle atmosphere during 2004–2009 (pages 3781–3793)

      A. V. Shapiro, E. V. Rozanov, A. I. Shapiro, T. A. Egorova, J. Harder, M. Weber, A. K. Smith, W. Schmutz and T. Peter

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50208

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      Key Points

      • We found the most sensitive to the SSI discrepancy atmospheric regions.
      • The 3D model with various forcings is used to simulate the atmospheric evolution
      • The simulated responses are confronted with the atmospheric observations.
    27. Development and evaluation of an ammonia bidirectional flux parameterization for air quality models (pages 3794–3806)

      Jonathan E. Pleim, Jesse O. Bash, John T. Walker and Ellen J. Cooter

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50262

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      Key Points

      • Bi-direction model can replicate NH3 fluxes for fertilized crops
      • Soil and cuticular resistances are key parameters for NH3 flux modeling
    28. Shadow-band correction for diffuse ultraviolet radiation measurements (pages 3807–3816)

      G. Sánchez, A. Serrano and M. L. Cancillo

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50361

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      Key Points

      • UV shadow-band measurements need to be corrected in up to 26%
      • Shadow-band correction models have been adapted for UV wavelengths
      • Steven* and Batlles A* show better performance than Drummond model
    29. Ground/satellite observations and atmospheric modeling of dust storms originating in the high Puna-Altiplano deserts (South America): Implications for the interpretation of paleo-climatic archives (pages 3817–3831)

      D.M. Gaiero, L. Simonella, S. Gassó, S. Gili, A.F. Stein, P. Sosa, R. Becchio, J. Arce and H. Marelli

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50036

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      Key points

      • Study of dust storms originated in the high subtropical Puna-Altiplano
      • Monitoring stations located downwind recorded the events
      • Results have implications for interpretation of paleo-environmental archives
    30. Chemical discontinuity at the extratropical tropopause and isentropic stratosphere-troposphere exchange pathways diagnosed using Aura MLS data (pages 3832–3847)

      J. J. Jin, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, J. H. Jiang, M. J. Schwartz and W. H. Daffer

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50291

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      Key Points

      • A tropopause latitude coordinate is developed to view features around the ExTP.
      • Strong chemical discontinuities are seen at the extratropical tropopause.
      • Stratosphere-troposphere exchange pathways are diagnosed using MLS observations.
    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A multimodel comparison of stratospheric ozone data assimilation based on an ensemble Kalman filter approach (pages 3848–3868)

      T. Nakamura, H. Akiyoshi, M. Deushi, K. Miyazaki, C. Kobayashi, K. Shibata and T. Iwasaki

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50338

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      Key Points

      • A sophisticated data assimilation system for ozone is constructed.
      • Influences of model bias on assimilation results are examined.
      • Use of multiple observations reduces deterioration of results due to model bias.
    32. Major 20th century changes of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) aerosol over Europe inferred from Alpine ice cores (pages 3869–3878)

      J. Guilhermet, S. Preunkert, D. Voisin, C. Baduel and M. Legrand

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50201

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      Key Points

      • Wood burning emission changes during the 20th century over Europe
      • Biogenic origin of HULIS in summer

      Companion to DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50200

      Companion to DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50202

    33. Major 20th century changes of the content and chemical speciation of organic carbon archived in Alpine ice cores: Implications for the long-term change of organic aerosol over Europe (pages 3879–3890)

      M. Legrand, S. Preunkert, B. May, J. Guilhermet, H. Hoffman and D. Wagenbach

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50202

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      Key Points

      • Increase of biogenic organic Aerosol over Europe during the 20th century

      Companion to DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50200

      Companion to DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50201

    34. TransCom model simulations of methane: Comparison of vertical profiles with aircraft measurements (pages 3891–3904)

      Ryu Saito, Prabir K. Patra, Colm Sweeney, Toshinobu Machida, Maarten Krol, Sander Houweling, Philippe Bousquet, Anna Agusti-Panareda, Dmitry Belikov, Dan Bergmann, Huisheng Bian, Philip Cameron-Smith, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Annemarie Fraser, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, Peter Hess, Stephan R. Kawa, Rachel M. Law, Robin Locatelli, Zoe Loh, Shamil Maksyutov, Lei Meng, John B. Miller, Paul I. Palmer, Ronald G. Prinn, Matthew Rigby and Christopher Wilson

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50380

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      Key Points

      • TransCom CH4 model intercomparison
      • Implications of CH4 profiles for surface fluxes, transport and chemistry
      • Relationship between vertical and horizontal transport of tracers
    35. Distribution and production of reactive mercury and dissolved gaseous mercury in surface waters and water/air mercury flux in reservoirs on Wujiang River, Southwest China (pages 3905–3917)

      Xuewu Fu, Xinbin Feng, Yanna Guo, Bo Meng, Runsheng Yin and Heng Yao

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50384

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      Key Points

      • We studied Hg emission fluxes from 5 reservoirs in China

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