Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

16 April 2014

Volume 119, Issue 7

Pages i–v, 3643–4446

  1. Issue Information

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    1. Issue Information (pages i–v)

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50733

  2. Research Articles

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    1. Climate and Dynamics

      The devastating Zhouqu storm-triggered debris flow of August 2010: Likely causes and possible trends in a future warming climate (pages 3643–3662)

      Diandong Ren

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020881

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      Key Points

      • A flash flood/extreme precipitation related natural persistent hazards
      • New methods applied in climate sensitivity of extreme precipitation
      • Methods also applicable to 2010 type U.S. flash floods
    2. Spatiotemporal development of irreversible mixing in midlatitude baroclinic wave life cycles: Morphology, energetics, and nonisentropic mixing activity (pages 3663–3686)

      Y. H. Yamazaki and W. R. Peltier

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020646

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      Key Points

      • Nonisentropic mixing is measured for a variety of baroclinic wave life cycles
      • Nonisentropic irreversible mixing is highly localized and clearly structured
      • Climatological stratification leads to maximum stratosphere-troposphere Exchange
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Influence of cloud phase composition on climate feedbacks (pages 3687–3700)

      Yong-Sang Choi, Chang-Hoi Ho, Chang-Eui Park, Trude Storelvmo and Ivy Tan

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020582

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      Key Points

      • Estimating Change in climate feedback by composition of cloud
      • Separating climate feedback into several component using climate kernels
      • Computing climate feedback using global climate model
    4. A statistical study of inertia gravity waves in the troposphere based on the measurements of Wuhan Atmosphere Radio Exploration (WARE) radar (pages 3701–3714)

      Haiyin Qing, Chen Zhou, Zhengyu Zhao, Gang Chen, Binbin Ni, Xudong Gu, Guobin Yang and Yuannong Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020684

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      Key Points

      • A statistical analysis of MST radar gravity waves measurements
      • Wave characteristics of upward and downward waves are investigated
      • Sources of upward and downward waves are statistically discussed
    5. Enhanced relationship between the tropical Atlantic SST and the summertime western North Pacific subtropical high after the early 1980s (pages 3715–3722)

      Chi-Cherng Hong, Tao-Chi Chang and Huang-Hsiung Hsu

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021394

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      Key Points

      • The relationship between the TA-SST and the WNPSH was enhanced after the early 1980s
      • The ENSO's impact on the TA-SST has been weakening since the early 1980s
      • The warm TA-SST may improve the predictability of the boreal summertime WNPSH
    6. Intermediate frequency atmospheric disturbances: A dynamical bridge connecting western U.S. extreme precipitation with East Asian cold surges (pages 3723–3735)

      Tianyu Jiang, Katherine J. Evans, Yi Deng and Xiquan Dong

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021209

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      Key Points

      • Western U.S. coastal atmospheric river activity is modulated by Asian cold surge
      • Intermediate frequency disturbances are important in this modulation
      • The connection is better captured in climate models with higher resolutions
    7. ECMWF and GFS model forecast verification during DYNAMO: Multiscale variability in MJO initiation over the equatorial Indian Ocean (pages 3736–3755)

      Brandon W. Kerns and Shuyi S. Chen

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020833

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      Key Points

      • ECMWF and GFS both captured the observed MJO initiation in 1–2 days forecasts
      • ECMWF model forecasts were superior in the 5–15 day range
      • ECMWF forecasts better captured synoptic scale features and equatorial rain
    8. Coordinated investigation of midlatitude upper mesospheric temperature inversion layers and the associated gravity wave forcing by Na lidar and Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper in Logan, Utah (pages 3756–3769)

      Tao Yuan, P.-D. Pautet, Y. Zhao, X. Cai, N. R. Criddle, M. J. Taylor and W. R. Pendleton Jr.

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020586

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      Key Points

      • The mesospheric temperature inversion is formed by gravity wave breaking
      • The wave breaking due to enhanced saturation and statically unstable region
      • Tidal wave and mesospheric bore induce sharp increase of stability
    9. A global survey of the instantaneous linkages between cloud vertical structure and large-scale climate (pages 3770–3792)

      Ying Li, David W. J. Thompson, Graeme L. Stephens and Sandrine Bony

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020669

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      Key Points

      • Quantify linkages between cloud vertical structure and meteorological parameters
      • The linkages are explored and quantified at all levels and throughout the globe
      • Provide a baseline for evaluating physical parameterizations of clouds in GCMs
    10. A study of the atmospheric surface layer and roughness lengths on the high-altitude tropical Zongo glacier, Bolivia (pages 3793–3808)

      Jean Emmanuel Sicart, Maxime Litt, Warren Helgason, Vanessa Ben Tahar and Thomas Chaperon

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020615

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      Key Points

      • Analysis of wind and temperature profiles measured on the tropical Zongo Glacier
      • Investigation of wind regimes and aerodynamic properties of the glacier surface
    11. Cloud-precipitation-radiation-dynamics interaction in global climate models: A snow and radiation interaction sensitivity experiment (pages 3809–3824)

      J.-L. F. Li, W.-L. Lee, D. E. Waliser, J. David Neelin, Justin P. Stachnik and Tong Lee

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021038

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      Key Points

      • Most GCMs consider cloud radiation with suspended cloud
      • We characterize the radiation impacts of falling snow in a CGCM
      • The impacts associated with the exclusion of snow radiation are significant
    12. Performance characteristics of the NLDN for return strokes and pulses superimposed on steady currents, based on rocket-triggered lightning data acquired in Florida in 2004–2012 (pages 3825–3856)

      S. Mallick, V. A. Rakov, J. D. Hill, T. Ngin, W. R. Gamerota, J. T. Pilkey, C. J. Biagi, D. M. Jordan, M. A. Uman, J. A. Cramer and A. Nag

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021401

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      Key Points

      • Flash and stroke detection efficiencies of the NLDN are 94% and 75%, respectively
      • Median location error of the NLDN is 334 m
      • Median value of absolute peak current estimation error is 14%
    13. Parameterization of ice fall speeds in midlatitude cirrus: Results from SPartICus (pages 3857–3876)

      Subhashree Mishra, David L. Mitchell, David D. Turner and R. P. Lawson

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020602

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      Key Points

      • Compute cirrus ice fall speed from in situ data
      • Parameterized mass-weighted ice fall speed for GCMs
      • Parameterized number-weighted ice fall speed for GCMs
  3. Comment

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Comment
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    7. Regular Articles
    8. Research Articles
    1. Climate and Dynamics

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
  4. Reply

    1. Top of page
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    8. Research Articles
    1. Climate and Dynamics

  5. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
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    6. Research Articles
    7. Regular Articles
    8. Research Articles
    1. Climate and Dynamics

      Seasonal evapotranspiration patterns in mangrove forests (pages 3886–3899)

      Jordan G. Barr, Marcia S. DeLonge and Jose D. Fuentes

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021083

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      Key Points

      • Forests partitioned energy like semi-arid environments during the dry season
      • Increased salinity reduced evapotranspiration (ET) by as much as 26%
      • Site-specific models reproduced seasonal rates of ET in mangrove forests
    2. A multimodel examination of climate extremes in an idealized geoengineering experiment (pages 3900–3923)

      Charles L. Curry, Jana Sillmann, David Bronaugh, Kari Alterskjaer, Jason N. S. Cole, Duoying Ji, Ben Kravitz, Jón Egill Kristjánsson, John C. Moore, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Alan Robock, Simone Tilmes and Shuting Yang

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020648

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      Key Points

      • The G1 experiment features significant changes in climate extremes
      • Rapid climate responses in G1 lead to significant regional warming over land
      • Extreme temperatures decrease and cold spells increase over oceans in G1
    3. Postlaunch calibration and bias characterization of AMSU-A upper air sounding channels using GPS RO Data (pages 3924–3941)

      X. Chen and X. Zou

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021037

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      Key Points

      • AMSU-A postlaunch calibration has been carried out using GPS RO data
      • Derived linear regression relationship between AMSU-A data and GPS RO data
      • AMSU-A data after GPS RO calibration are examined with GFS forecast fields
    4. Aerosol and Clouds

      Preliminary evaluation of S-NPP VIIRS aerosol optical thickness (pages 3942–3962)

      Hongqing Liu, Lorraine A. Remer, Jingfeng Huang, Ho-Chun Huang, Shobha Kondragunta, Istvan Laszlo, Min Oo and John M Jackson

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020360

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      Key Points

      • VIIRS aerosol optical thickness at the Provisional maturity level is validated
      • VIIRS aerosol optical thickness is a quantitative measure of aerosol loading
      • VIIRS aerosol optical thickness is comparable to that of MODIS on a global scale
    5. Observations of aerosol-induced convective invigoration in the tropical east Atlantic (pages 3963–3975)

      R. L. Storer, S. C. van den Heever and T. S. L'Ecuyer

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020272

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      Key Points

      • Observed tropical convection with CloudSat data
      • Convection invigorated with increased aerosol optical depth
      • Trends were statistically significant
    6. Impact of large-scale dynamics on the microphysical properties of midlatitude cirrus (pages 3976–3996)

      Andreas Muhlbauer, Thomas P. Ackerman, Jennifer M. Comstock, Glenn S. Diskin, Stuart M. Evans, R. Paul Lawson and Roger T. Marchand

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020035

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      Key Points

      • About 50% of cirrus occurrences at ARM SGP is explained by three synoptic conditions
      • Cirrus microphysics exhibit striking differences among synoptic regimes
      • Vertical velocity is a poor predictor of cirrus microphysical variability
    7. Key parameters controlling OH-initiated formation of secondary organic aerosol in the aqueous phase (aqSOA) (pages 3997–4016)

      Barbara Ervens, Armin Sorooshian, Yong B. Lim and Barbara J. Turpin

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021021

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      Key Points

      • AqSOA formation in clouds is oxidant limited but possibly not in aerosol particles
      • Cloud aqSOA formation inversely scales with drop effective radius
      • Observed trends of cloud aqSOA show agreement with model results
  6. Regular Articles

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    7. Regular Articles
    8. Research Articles
    1. Aerosol and Clouds

      Application of spectral analysis techniques in the intercomparison of aerosol data: Part III. Using combined PCA to compare spatiotemporal variability of MODIS, MISR, and OMI aerosol optical depth (pages 4017–4042)

      Jing Li, Barbara E. Carlson and Andrew A. Lacis

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020538

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      Key Points

      • CPCA successfully extracts coupled modes in multiple data sets
      • The comparison suggests good agreement among the three data sets
      • Differences in the CPCA modes are discussed and explained
  7. Research Articles

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    8. Research Articles
    1. Aerosol and Clouds

      Assimilating aerosol observations with a “hybrid” variational-ensemble data assimilation system (pages 4043–4069)

      Craig S. Schwartz, Zhiquan Liu, Hui-Chuan Lin and Jeffrey D. Cetola

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020937

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      Key Points

      • Hybrid
      • Aerosol and meteorological observations assimilated with various techniques
      • Aerosol forecasts are best when the hybrid data assimilation method is used
    2. Mineral dust aerosol net direct radiative effect during GERBILS field campaign period derived from SEVIRI and GERB (pages 4070–4086)

      C. Ansell, Helen E. Brindley, Yaswant Pradhan and Roger Saunders

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020681

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      Key Points

      • Dust causes a mean net radiative heating seen over the region and period studies
      • Mean net dust effect is dominated by LW component
      • Locally, SW dust radiative effect can dominate and change sign dependent on time of day
    3. Joint analysis of cloud top heights from CloudSat and CALIPSO: New insights into cloud top microphysics (pages 4087–4106)

      Yuichiro Hagihara, Hajime Okamoto and Zhengzhao Johnny Luo

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020919

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      Key Points

      • Examine the CTHs and cloud top microphysics by CloudSat and CALIPSO
      • Clouds where CloudSat-determined CTHs are larger than CALIPSO ones are revealed
      • Existence of such clouds implies the cloud tops consist of large particles
    4. Annual distributions and sources of Arctic aerosol components, aerosol optical depth, and aerosol absorption (pages 4107–4124)

      Thomas J. Breider, Loretta J. Mickley, Daniel J. Jacob, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jenny A. Fisher, Rachel. Y.-W. Chang and Becky Alexander

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020996

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      Key Points

      • Significant contribution from non-BC aerosols to Arctic AAOD and deposition to snow
      • Anthropogenic contribution to Arctic AOD is a factor of 4 larger in spring than in summer
      • Smaller size of sulfate aerosol in Arctic summer is key to reproducing AOD observations
    5. Cosmogenic 35S measurements in the Tibetan Plateau to quantify glacier snowmelt (pages 4125–4135)

      Antra Priyadarshi, Jason Hill-Falkenthal, Mark Thiemens, Zhisheng Zhang, Mang Lin, Chuen-yu Chan and Shichang Kang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019801

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      Key Points

      • Sulfur-35 is a unique tracer to quantify the Tibetan glacier melt
      • Sulfur-35 vary significantly in aerosol, snow, and lake/river
      • The age of Lake Nam Co surface water is ~10 months
    6. Aerosol impacts on drizzle properties in warm clouds from ARM Mobile Facility maritime and continental deployments (pages 4136–4148)

      Julian A. L. Mann, J. Christine Chiu, Robin J. Hogan, Ewan J. O'Connor, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Thorwald H. M. Stein and Anne Jefferson

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021339

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      Key Points

      • Significant warm-rain suppression with increasing aerosol
      • Aerosol impact on rain rate agrees with aircraft measurements and models
      • Aerosol impact on rain probability agrees well with multiscale climate model
    7. A method to represent subgrid-scale updraft velocity in kilometer-scale models: Implication for aerosol activation (pages 4149–4173)

      Florent F. Malavelle, Jim M. Haywood, Paul R. Field, Adrian A. Hill, Steven J. Abel, Adrian P. Lock, Ben J. Shipway and Kirsty McBeath

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021218

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      Key Points

      • We seek to improve the aerosol activation behavior in kilometer-scale models
      • A method to constrain the subgrid-scale updraft velocity is presented
      • We highlight the potential implication for aerosol-cloud interactions modeling
    8. The climatic effects of modifying cirrus clouds in a climate engineering framework (pages 4174–4191)

      H. Muri, J. E. Kristjánsson, T. Storelvmo and M. A. Pfeffer

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021063

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      Key Points

      • Climate engineering via cirrus cloud thinning is simulated in a GCM
      • Cooling can be achieved but not without climatic side effects
      • Risk of remote climate changes
    9. Impact of subgrid-scale radiative heating variability on the stratocumulus-to-trade cumulus transition in climate models (pages 4192–4203)

      Heng Xiao, William I. Gustafson Jr. and Hailong Wang

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020999

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      Key Points

      • Marine low clouds remain a major source of uncertainty for climate projections
      • Lack of subgrid-scale radiation variability accelerates the Sc-to-Cu transition
      • Formulation of subgrid turbulence-radiation interaction is needed
    10. Normalized particle size distribution for remote sensing application (pages 4204–4227)

      J. M. E. Delanoë, A. J. Heymsfield, A. Protat, A. Bansemer and R. J. Hogan

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020700

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      Key Points

      • This study describes a normalization technique to represent the PSD
      • In-situ measurements are covering a large variety of ice clouds
      • This new data set also includes direct measurements of IWC
    11. Branched dart leaders preceding lightning return strokes (pages 4228–4252)

      Maribeth Stolzenburg, Thomas C. Marshall, Sumedhe Karunarathne, Nadeeka Karunarathna and Richard E. Orville

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021254

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      Key Points

      • Video data show 57% of 72 flashes have a successful branched dart leader (BDL)
      • BDLs are often the first dart leaders in a flash and can miss the prior channel
      • Ratio of preceding peak current to interstroke interval for BDLs is 2x larger
    12. Composition and Chemistry

      IASI observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the boundary layer of Norilsk (pages 4253–4263)

      Sophie Bauduin, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Daniel Hurtmans and Pierre-François Coheur

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021405

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      Key Points

      • The capability of IASI to probe boundary layer SO2 is demonstrated
      • 4 years of near-surface SO2 columns are retrieved above Norilsk
      • The first satellite measurement of SO2 above Norilsk for the winter is reported
    13. A comparison of satellite- and ground-based measurements of SO2 emissions from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador (pages 4264–4285)

      Brendan T. McCormick, Michael Herzog, Jian Yang, Marie Edmonds, Tamsin A. Mather, Simon A. Carn, Silvana Hidalgo and Baerbel Langmann

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD019771

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      Key Points

      • Space-based monitoring of volcanic degassing
      • Comparison of satellite- and ground-based data
    14. Ozone photolysis: Strong isotopologue/isotopomer selectivity in the stratosphere (pages 4286–4302)

      Steve Ndengué, Sasha Madronich, Fabien Gatti, Hans-Dieter Meyer, Ousmanou Motapon and Rémy Jost

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020033

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      Key Points

      • Photolysis rate of various ozone isotopologues are calculated
      • The ozone isotopic fractionation is determined versus altitude
      • The role of three spectral bands of ozone is analyzed
    15. Quantitative measurements and modeling of industrial formaldehyde emissions in the Greater Houston area during campaigns in 2009 and 2011 (pages 4303–4322)

      John K. E. Johansson, Johan Mellqvist, Jerker Samuelsson, Brian Offerle, Jana Moldanova, Bernhard Rappenglück, Barry Lefer and James Flynn

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020159

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      Key Points

      • Total HCHO emissions are measured from industrial sources in Houston
      • Industrial HCHO emission plumes are photochemically modeled
      • Primary emissions generally dominate HCHO emissions on local spatial scales
    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Surface ozone variability and trends over the South African Highveld from 1990 to 2007 (pages 4323–4342)

      Nikolay V. Balashov, Anne M. Thompson, Stuart J. Piketh and Kristy E. Langerman

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020555

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      Key Points

      • Surface ozone variability at Highveld is examined during 1990–2007
      • ENSO and NOx affects surface ozone over the South African Highveld
      • Surface ozone on the Highveld has not increased over 1990–2007
    17. Ammonia emissions in the United States, European Union, and China derived by high-resolution inversion of ammonium wet deposition data: Interpretation with a new agricultural emissions inventory (MASAGE_NH3) (pages 4343–4364)

      F. Paulot, D. J. Jacob, R. W. Pinder, J. O. Bash, K. Travis and D. K. Henze

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021130

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      Key Points

      • Adjoint-based inversion of ammonium wet deposition in the U.S., Europe, and China
      • Much larger spatial and temporal variability of U.S. emission than in the a priori
      • New model of NH3 emissions reproduces the patterns of the optimized emissions
    18. Performance simulations for a spaceborne methane lidar mission (pages 4365–4379)

      C. Kiemle, S. R. Kawa, M. Quatrevalet and E. V. Browell

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021253

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      Key Points

      • Global patterns in a spaceborne methane IPDA lidar's precision are assessed
      • CALIPSO and MODIS data are used for optical depth and ground reflectance
      • The precision over 50 × 50 km2 is 1% to 2% for key methane source regions
    19. Investigation of the sources and evolution processes of severe haze pollution in Beijing in January 2013 (pages 4380–4398)

      Yele Sun, Qi Jiang, Zifa Wang, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, Ting Yang and Yan Yin

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JD021641

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      Key Points

      • Sources and evolution processes of a record-breaking haze episode
      • Large increase of coal combustion organic aerosol during haze episodes
      • Estimation of regional contributions from steep increases of aerosol species
    20. OMPS Limb Profiler instrument performance assessment (pages 4399–4412)

      Glen Jaross, Pawan K. Bhartia, Grace Chen, Mark Kowitt, Michael Haken, Zhong Chen, Philippe Xu, Jeremy Warner and Thomas Kelly

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020482

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      Key Points

      • The OMPS Limb instrument is performing nominally
      • Sensor stray light is low
      • Instrument pointing errors are greater than expected
    21. Postlaunch performance of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir sensors (pages 4413–4428)

      C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, M. Kowitt, M. Haken, J. Li and L. E. Flynn

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020472

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      Key Points

      • The SNPP OMPS nadir sensors are performing nominally
      • Solar calibration sequence modified in orbit to minimize diffuser features
      • The sensors are stable, with any degradation being correctable
    22. Mesospheric and stratospheric NOy produced by energetic particle precipitation during 2002–2012 (pages 4429–4446)

      B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, G. P. Stiller and T. von Clarmann

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021404

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      Key Points

      • First assessment of EPP-NOy from global satellite data on a decadal scale
      • EPP-NOy is observed down to 25 km and contributes up to 40%
      • Interannual variability follows solar cycle variation of geomagnetic activity

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