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Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface (2003–2012)

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface (2003–2012)

March 2012

Volume 117, Issue F1

Currently known as: Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface

    1. You have free access to this content
      A parallel high-order accurate finite element nonlinear Stokes ice sheet model and benchmark experiments

      Wei Leng, Lili Ju, Max Gunzburger, Stephen Price and Todd Ringler

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF001962

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      Key Points

      • A parallel high-order accurate finite element Stokes ice sheet model
      • Both no-sliding and sliding boundary conditions are studied
      • Effective and efficient solvers using preconditioning techniques
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      Backwater and river plume controls on scour upstream of river mouths: Implications for fluvio-deltaic morphodynamics

      Michael P. Lamb, Jeffrey A. Nittrouer, David Mohrig and John Shaw

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002079

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      Key Points

      • Rivers are affected by backwater dynamics near their mouths
      • Drawdown during high flow causes scour upstream of river mouths
      • Persistent backwater zones occur due to variable discharges and divergent plumes
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      Controls on mass balance sensitivity of maritime glaciers in the Southern Alps, New Zealand: The role of debris cover

      Brian Anderson and Andrew Mackintosh

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002064

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      Key Points

      • Debris-covered glaciers have a reduced sensitivity to climatic changes
      • There is a large variability in sensitivity which is weakly related to climate
      • The mass balance gradient is a suitable variable to parametrize sensitivity with
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      Late Neogene exhumation and relief development of the Aar and Aiguilles Rouges massifs (Swiss Alps) from low-temperature thermochronology modeling and 4He/3He thermochronometry

      Pierre G. Valla, Peter A. van der Beek, David L. Shuster, Jean Braun, Frédéric Herman, Laurent Tassan-Got and Cécile Gautheron

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002043

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      Key Points

      • Inverse numerical modeling on thermochronology data
      • Late Neogene exhumation pulse
      • Pleistocene relief development by valley carving
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      Estimating 1992–2000 average active layer thickness on the Alaskan North Slope from remotely sensed surface subsidence

      Lin Liu, Kevin Schaefer, Tingjun Zhang and John Wahr

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002041

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      Key Points

      • Thawing of active layer causes surface subsidence
      • Surface subsidence from InSAR can be used to estimate active layer thickness
      • Our active layer thickness estimates closely match ground measurements
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      The response of Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, to the Denali earthquake rock avalanches

      Dan H. Shugar, Bernhard T. Rabus, John J. Clague and Denny M. Capps

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002011

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      Key Points

      • Landslide debris has a significant impact on glacier flow regime
      • Changes to mass balance result in reduction or reversal of velocity gradient
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      Laboratory investigations of iceberg capsize dynamics, energy dissipation and tsunamigenesis

      J. C. Burton, J. M. Amundson, D. S. Abbot, A. Boghosian, L. M. Cathles, S. Correa-Legisos, K. N. Darnell, N. Guttenberg, D. M. Holland and D. R. MacAyeal

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002055

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      Key Points

      • Iceberg capsize releases enormous amounts of energy and generates tsunamis
      • The release capsize energy is mostly dissipated in the form of turbulent flow
      • This turbulence has significant impacts on mixing stratified layers
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      Refined numerical modeling of the 1979 tsunami in Nice (French Riviera): Comparison with coastal data

      M. Labbé, C. Donnadieu, C. Daubord and H. Hébert

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF001964

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      Key Points

      • New refined simulation of the 16 October 1979 Nice airport landslide
      • The inundation in Antibes is computed and compared with survey data
      • Computed time series and resonant frequencies are confronted to tide recordings
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      Thermal tracking of meltwater retention in Greenland's accumulation area

      Neil F. Humphrey, Joel T. Harper and W. Tad Pfeffer

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002083

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      Key Points

      • First in-depth and in situ field study of the snow melt runoff limit, Greenland
      • Descriptions of the measured processes of year-round meltwater motion
      • Over 10 m of melt percolation in cold, decades-old firn, even through ice layers
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      Georadar-derived estimates of firn density in the percolation zone, western Greenland ice sheet

      Joel Brown, John Bradford, Joel Harper, W. Tad Pfeffer, Neil Humphrey and Ellen Mosley-Thompson

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002089

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      Key Points

      • Our method of measuring firn density with depth is accurate and self-consistent
      • Firn densification is not greatly affected by melt through the percolation zone
      • The boundary between melt and overburden driven firn densification is small
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      The sensitivity of turbidity currents to mass and momentum exchanges between these underflows and their surroundings

      M. M. Traer, G. E. Hilley, A. Fildani and T. McHargue

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF001990

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      Key Points

      • Uncertainties in entrainment functions confound turbidity current dynamics
      • Modeled turbidity currents are highly sensitive to entrainment parameters
      • Bayesian inversion yields a number of equi-probable entrainment relationships
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      Correlations of fluvial knickzones with landslide dams, lithologic contacts, and faults in the southwestern Annapurna Range, central Nepalese Himalaya

      Lisa S. Walsh, Aaron J. Martin, Tank P. Ojha and Tom Fedenczuk

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF001984

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      Key Points

      • Landslide dams explain river knickzones without the need for active faulting
      • We observe no correlation between river knickzones and lithologic contacts
      • Out-of-sequence thrust faulting near the MCT may not be necessary
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      Evolution of a coupled marine ice sheet–sea level model

      Natalya Gomez, David Pollard, Jerry X. Mitrovica, Peter Huybers and Peter U. Clark

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002128

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      Key Points

      • We couple a sea level model to a marine ice sheet model
      • Calculations include gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes
      • The coupling acts to slow down and in some cases halt ice sheet retreat
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      Using multiple bed load measurements: Toward the identification of bed dilation and contraction in gravel-bed rivers

      G. A. Marquis and A. G. Roy

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002120

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      Key Points

      • Bed load monitoring using multiple methods
      • Identification of new river bed dynamics
      • Discussion of processes leading to bed dilation-contraction and implications
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      Kinematics of steep bedrock permafrost

      Andreas Hasler, Stephan Gruber and Jan Beutel

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF001981

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      Key Points

      • Novel in-situ measurements of rock movements in steep permafrost
      • Two seasonally separated temperature dependent movement regimes
      • Enhanced summer movements may indicate instabilities
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      Upscaling from grain-scale processes to alluviation in bedrock channels using a cellular automaton model

      Rebecca A. Hodge and Trevor B. Hoey

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002145

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      Key Points

      • Cellular automaton model of sediment grain dynamics is applied to bedrock rivers
      • Grain entrainment probabilities affect the sediment flux and cover relationship
      • The different flux and cover relationships match those seen in flume experiments
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      Modeling mass-dependent flow regime transitions to predict the stopping and depositional behavior of snow avalanches

      P. Bartelt, Y. Bühler, O. Buser, M. Christen and L. Meier

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JF001957

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      Key Points

      • Flow regime transitions are an inherent feature of snow avalanches
      • By modelling flow regime transitions we can predict avalanche deposition pattern
      • Existing models can be used to predict runout and speed, not deposit patterns
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      The physical basis for anomalous diffusion in bed load transport

      Raleigh L. Martin, Douglas J. Jerolmack and Rina Schumer

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002075

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      Key Points

      • Anomalous bed load sediment diffusion arises from grain-scale interactions
      • Particle inertia and grain heterogeneity explain superdiffusion at short times
      • Heavy-tailed particle waits are related to bed scour process
      Corrected by:

      Correction to “The physical basis for anomalous diffusion in bed load transport”

      Vol. 117, Issue F4, Article first published online: 2 OCT 2012

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      Particle transport over rough hillslope surfaces by dry ravel: Experiments and simulations with implications for nonlocal sediment flux

      Emmanuel J. Gabet and Morgan K. Mendoza

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002229

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      Key Points

      • Dry ravel exhibits nonlocal behavior on steep slopes
      • The angle of repose marks a transition between local and nonlocal transport
      • Contributing area is a factor in dry ravel sediment flux
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      An extended “perfect-plasticity” method for estimating ice thickness along the flow line of mountain glaciers

      Huilin Li, Felix Ng, Zhongqin Li, Dahe Qin and Guodong Cheng

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002104

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      Key Points

      • An extended method for estimating the ice thickness along glacier flow lines
      • The method is physically realistic, and its inputs are easily derived
      • Testing of method on glaciers shows its potential to be applied to large data set
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      Exploration of parametric uncertainty in a surface mass balance model applied to the Greenland ice sheet

      P. W. Fitzgerald, J. L. Bamber, J. K. Ridley and J. C. Rougier

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002067

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      Key Points

      • Reduce the dimensionality of ensemble methods
      • Explore SMB parametric uncertainty in space and time
      • Constrain ITM parameter ranges
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      Continental scale, high order, high spatial resolution, ice sheet modeling using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

      E. Larour, H. Seroussi, M. Morlighem and E. Rignot

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002140

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      Key Points

      • Large scale capable, high resolution, finite element ice sheet/shelf flow model
      • Higher order thermal/mechanical model, including full-Stokes
      • Continental scale inversion of basal friction on the Greenland Ice Sheet
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      Unsteady late Pleistocene incision of streams bounding the Colorado Front Range from measurements of meteoric and in situ 10Be

      Miriam Dühnforth, Robert S. Anderson, Dylan J. Ward and Alex Blum

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002232

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      Key Points

      • Incision of the eastern Rocky Mountains in Colorado is unsteady
      • Strath terrace surfaces in Denver Basin are much younger than previously mapped
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      Limits to reconstructing paleotopography from thermochronometer data

      Stephanie M. Olen, Todd A. Ehlers and Mathew S. Densmore

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF001985

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      Key Points

      • Thermocrhonometer ages can reconstruct paleotopography in appropriate settings
      • Thermal or tectonic uncertainties complicate paleotopographic reconstruction
      • A large lateral peak migration is detected in the Mt. Waddington region
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      Process length scales and longitudinal damping in karst conduits

      M. D. Covington, A. J. Luhmann, C. M. Wicks and M. O. Saar

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002212

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      Key Points

      • Process length scales provide a general metric for karst processes
      • We derive length scales associated with conductivity and temperature signals
      • A recharge density function determines the damping of karst aquifer signals
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      Critical shear stress for incipient motion of a particle on a rough bed

      Hyungoo Lee and S. Balachandar

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002208

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      Key Points

      • Improved drag, lift, and torque coefficients
      • Effect of turbulence on incipient motion and resuspension
      • Sensitivity to the mean turbulent velocity profile
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      Equilibrium form of horizontally retreating, soil-mantled hillslopes: Model development and application to a groundwater sapping landscape

      J. Taylor Perron and Jennifer L. Hamon

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002139

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      Key Points

      • Horizontally retreating hillslopes have exponential steady state profiles
      • Hillslope profiles can record growth rates of channel networks
      • Hillslopes in a Florida landscape reveal aspect-dependent soil transport rates
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      Substrate effects from force chain dynamics in dense granular flows

      Joe Estep and Josef Dufek

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002125

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      Key Points

      • Force chains cause extreme bed force localization in dense granular flows
      • Localized forces can propagate extensively into the substrate
      • Peak localized forces may cause substrate entrainment, altering flow momentum
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      Displacement fields from point cloud data: Application of particle imaging velocimetry to landslide geodesy

      Arjun Aryal, Benjamin A. Brooks, Mark E. Reid, Gerald W. Bawden and Geno R. Pawlak

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002161

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      Key Points

      • We adapted the PIV method for use with terrestrial laser scanner data
      • We derived a smooth and complete displacement field of a slow moving landslide
      • The results elucidated developing lateral shear zones and non-rigid mechanics
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      Scaling the Teflon Peaks: Rock type and the generation of extreme relief in the glaciated western Alaska Range

      Dylan J. Ward, Robert S. Anderson and Peter J. Haeussler

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002068

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      Key Points

      • Intact granite plutons strongly influence the topography of the Alaska Range
      • Intact granite affects both glacial and periglacial erosion
      • These effects create feedbacks that promote the generation of high relief
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      Ambient seismic noise monitoring of a clay landslide: Toward failure prediction

      Guénolé Mainsant, Eric Larose, Cornelia Brönnimann, Denis Jongmans, Clément Michoud and Michel Jaboyedoff

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002159

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      Key Points

      • Rigidity drop observed from ambient seismic noise correlation monitoring
      • Rigidity drop several days before the slope failure
      • Frequency analysis demonstrates the change to be at a depth of 9 to 11 m
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      Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

      C. G. Johnson, B. P. Kokelaar, R. M. Iverson, M. Logan, R. G. LaHusen and J. M. N. T. Gray

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002185

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      Key Points

      • Coarse particle levees form in debris flows by progressive streamwise accretion
      • Coarse grains are transported to the flow front, then laterally into the levees
      • Grain size segregation profoundly affects flow dynamics and deposit structure
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      Evidence of a hydrological connection between the ice divide and ice sheet margin in the Aurora Subglacial Basin, East Antarctica

      A. P. Wright, D. A. Young, J. L. Roberts, D. M. Schroeder, J. L. Bamber, J. A. Dowdeswell, N. W. Young, A. M. Le Brocq, R. C. Warner, A. J. Payne, D. D. Blankenship, T. D. van Ommen and M. J. Siegert

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002066

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      Key Points

      • New bed topography for Aurora basin indicates pathway for lake drainage
      • Ice sheet modeling and radio echo reflections demonstrate warm wet basal ice
      • New subglacial lakes recorded in RES survey
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      Monitoring of snow avalanches using a seismic array: Location, speed estimation, and relationships to meteorological variables

      P. Lacroix, J.-R. Grasso, J. Roulle, G. Giraud, D. Goetz, S. Morin and A. Helmstetter

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002106

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      Key Points

      • Snow avalanche propagation can be followed through seismic monitoring
      • The velocity of avalanches can be estimated using seismic arrays
      • Quantification of the meteorological parameters on the avalanche triggering
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      Analysis of low-frequency seismic signals generated during a multiple-iceberg calving event at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Fabian Walter, Jason M. Amundson, Shad O'Neel, Martin Truffer, Mark Fahnestock and Helen A. Fricker

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002132

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      Key Points

      • A full-thickness calving event at Jakobshavn Isbrae emitted seismic waves
      • The 0.05-0.1 Hz seismograms were modeled with single forces
      • Several ambiguities indicate caution with interpreting seismic source models
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      Flow and sediment dynamics in channel confluences

      M. Leite Ribeiro, K. Blanckaert, A. G. Roy and A. J. Schleiss

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002171

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      Key Points

      • Experimental investigation in a channel confluence under live bed conditions
      • Configuration not considered in previous studies
      • Three-dimensional flow velocity and turbulence measurements
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      A classification scheme for turbulence based on the velocity-intermittency structure with an application to near-wall flow and with implications for bed load transport

      C. J. Keylock, K. Nishimura and J. Peinke

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002127

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      Key Points

      • A new method for analyzing turbulence data is proposed
      • Revealed velocity-intermittency dependence can be used for flow classification
      • This additionally sheds new light on impulse-based models for bedload transport
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      On the impact of an offshore bathymetric anomaly on surf zone rip channels

      B. Castelle, V. Marieu, G. Coco, P. Bonneton, N. Bruneau and B. G. Ruessink

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002141

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      Key Points

      • For a given wave forcing rip channels can self-organize into different patterns
      • Updrift and downdrift rip channel behaviors are different
      • An offshore anomaly influences surf zone rip migration and spacing

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