Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface

March 2013

Volume 118, Issue 1

Pages 1–330

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. The role of acids in electrical conduction through ice (pages 1–16)

      David E. Stillman, Joseph A. MacGregor and Robert E. Grimm

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002603

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      Key Points

      • DC and HF conductivity of polar ice cores is measured concurrently
      • Conduction in polar ice is controlled by the behavior of lattice defects
      • Cointerpretation of electrical and chemical logs constrains impurity partitioning
    2. In situ fragmentation and rock particle sorting on arid hills (pages 17–28)

      Gavan S. McGrath, Zhengyao Nie, Arcady Dyskin, Tia Byrd, Rowan Jenner, Georgina Holbeche and Christoph Hinz

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002402

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      Key Points

      • Rock armor size distributions found to change systematically downslope on mesas
      • A fragmentation model reproduces observed change in particle size distributions
      • A size dependent fragmentation rate related to scaling in tensile strength
    3. Evolution of drainage system morphology at a land-terminating Greenlandic outlet glacier (pages 29–41)

      Tom Cowton, Peter Nienow, Andrew Sole, Jemma Wadham, Greg Lis, Ian Bartholomew, Doug Mair and Dave Chandler

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002540

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      Key Points

      • Dye tracing reveals evolution of drainage system at Greenland outlet glacier
      • Channelised drainage system develops rapidly following onset of spring melting
      • Water storage declines as season progresses but continues to influence dynamics
    4. Entrainment of coarse particles in turbulent flows: An energy approach (pages 42–53)

      Manousos Valyrakis, Panayiotis Diplas and Clint L. Dancey

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002354

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      Key Points

      • Particle entrainment is due to flow events of sufficient energy
      • The energy criterion relates to the energy density and lenghtscale of flow event
      • The efficiency of energy transfer of a flow event to the grain varies
    5. Interpretation and downstream correlation of bedrock river terrace treads created from propagating knickpoints (pages 54–64)

      N. J. Finnegan

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002534

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      Key Points

      • Time-transgressive terraces constrain incision rate dependence on channel slope
      • Time-transgressive terraces do not record the rock uplift field in a simple way
      • A process of incision with a slope threshold best explains terrace gradients
    6. Multiscalar model for the determination of spatially explicit riparian vegetation roughness (pages 65–83)

      Rebecca Manners, John Schmidt and Joseph M. Wheaton

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002188

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      Key Points

      • Proposes a multi-scalar model that characterizes reach-scale hydraulic roughness
      • Links detailed terrestrial laser scan data to spatially extensive LiDAR
      • Predicts the hydraulic roughness of tamarisk-dominated stands
    7. Modeling the influence of changing storm patterns on the ability of a salt marsh to keep pace with sea level rise (pages 84–96)

      M. Schuerch, A. Vafeidis, T. Slawig and S. Temmerman

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002471

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      Key Points

      • High storminess increases the ability of salt marshes to adapt to sea level rise
      • Increased storm frequency enhances marsh accretion stronger than storm intensity
      • Availability of erodible sediment controls the storm influence on marsh survival
    8. The influence of subglacial hydrology on the flow of Kamb Ice Stream, West Antarctica (pages 97–110)

      Narelle van der Wel, Poul Christoffersen and Marion Bougamont

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002570

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      Key Points

      • Feedbacks between ice flow and the bed cause ice streams to switch on/off
      • Subglacial hydrology modulates basal conditions and on/off cycles of flow
      • Different hydrological regimes explain patterns of ice stream flow
    9. Recurring dynamically induced thinning during 1985 to 2010 on Upernavik Isstrøm, West Greenland (pages 111–121)

      Shfaqat Abbas Khan, Kurt H. Kjær, Niels J. Korsgaard, John Wahr, Ian R. Joughin, Lars H. Timm, Jonathan L. Bamber, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Leigh A. Stearns, Gordon S. Hamilton, Bea M. Csatho, Karina Nielsen, Ruud Hurkmans and Greg Babonis

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002481

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      Key Points

      • Upernavik Isstrom experienced at least two short-timescale accelerations
      • Recent event coincides with speedup on several glaciers along the NW Greenland
      • Dynamically-induced ice loss is much larger than melt induced ice loss
    10. Sand transport beneath waves: The role of progressive wave streaming and other free surface effects (pages 122–139)

      Wouter M. Kranenburg, Jan S. Ribberink, Jolanthe J. L. M. Schretlen and Rob E. Uittenbogaard

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002427

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      Keypoints

      • We present a num. wave boundary layer model & validation with recent flume data
      • Wave induced onshore streaming augments onshore transport; we quantify this
      • For fine sands also other free surface effects are relevant; we parametrize them
    11. Identification and control of subglacial water networks under Dome A, Antarctica (pages 140–154)

      Michael J. Wolovick, Robin E. Bell, Timothy T. Creyts and Nicholas Frearson

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002555

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      Key Points

      • We have used radar to image small subglacial water bodies
      • The water bodies are organized into large networks
      • The networks reoccupy a valley system that predates the ice sheet
    12. Displacement characteristics of coarse fluvial bed sediment (pages 155–165)

      Marwan A. Hassan, Hal Voepel, Rina Schumer, Gary Parker and Luigi Fraccarollo

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002374

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      Key Points

      • Most events yielded thin-tail travel distance
      • Heavy tail does not persist through total travel distance
      • Heavy tail travel were obtained for events with limited scour
    13. Are American rivers Tokunaga self-similar? New results on fluvial network topology and its climatic dependence (pages 166–183)

      S. Zanardo, I. Zaliapin and E. Foufoula-Georgiou

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002392

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      Key points

      • We propose and test rigorous methods to evaluate the river network topology
      • We identify some topological properties for a large data-set of river networks
      • We find significant correlations between river topology and local climate
    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Deciphering boulder mobility and erosion from cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating (pages 184–197)

      Benjamin H. Mackey and Michael P. Lamb

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrf.20035

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      Key Points

      • 3D modeling of cosmogenic nuclide accumulation in mobile, eroding boulders
      • Exposure dating may inform boulder erosion rate, movement recurrence, and residence time
      • Non-dimensional framework for range of geomorphic settings and isotope systems
    15. Soluble salt accumulations in Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Implications for paleolakes and Ross Sea Ice Sheet dynamics (pages 198–215)

      Jonathan D. Toner, Ronald S. Sletten and Michael L. Prentice

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002467

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      Key Points

      • Soluble salt indicate the history of paleolakes and the Ross Sea Ice Sheet
      • The Ross Sea Ice Sheet dammed 300 m deep paleolakes in western Taylor Valley
      • Soluble salts are influenced by cation exchange and calcite/gypsum dissolution
    16. Bankfull hydraulic geometry of submarine channels created by turbidity currents: Relations between bankfull channel characteristics and formative flow discharge (pages 216–228)

      Kory Konsoer, Jessica Zinger and Gary Parker

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002422

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      Key Points

      • Submarine channels tend to be wider, deeper, and steeper than river channels
      • Volume sediment concentration ~0.2%-0.6% for channel-forming turbidity currents
      • Estimated discharges give hydraulic geometry trends similar to rivers
    17. Does biogeomorphic feedback lead to abrupt shifts between alternative landscape states?: An empirical study on intertidal flats and marshes (pages 229–240)

      Chen Wang and Stijn Temmerman

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002474

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      Key Points

      • Bare tidal flats and vegetated marshes have a bimodal elevation distribution
      • Elevation shifts are rather rapid as bare flats evolve to vegetated marshes
      • The shifts can be predicted as soon as a threshold elevation is exceeded
    18. Controls on the spacing and geometry of rill networks on hillslopes: Rain splash detachment, initial hillslope roughness, and the competition between fluvial and colluvial transport (pages 241–256)

      Luke A. McGuire, Jon D. Pelletier, José A. Gómez and Mark A. Nearing

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrf.20028

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      Key Points

      • Model predictions of rill networks are compared to physical experiments
      • No critical threshold marks the transition from dendritic to parallel networks
      • A scaling relationship is developed for the spacing of parallel rills
    19. Alluvial sediment or playas: What is the dominant source of sand and silt in desert soil vesicular A horizons, southwest USA (pages 257–275)

      Mark R. Sweeney, Eric V. McDonald and Christopher E. Markley

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrf.20030

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      Key Points

      • Aeolian sediments in Av horizons are primarily derived from alluvial landforms
      • Playas are minimal contributors to regional dust in the Mojave and Sonora
      • Av horizons form from both suspended load and saltating aeolian sediments
    20. Subaqueous “yardangs”: Analogs for aeolian yardang evolution (pages 276–287)

      Paul A. Carling

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002260

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      Key Points

      • similar morphologies show convergent evolution of aqueous & aeolian yardangs
      • 2D energy flux cannot explain height of invert without modification
      • Kinetic energy of sand is not applied throughout vertical to target surface
    21. Evaluation of a new model of aeolian transport in the presence of vegetation (pages 288–306)

      Junran Li, Gregory S. Okin, Jeffrey E. Herrick, Jayne Belnap, Mark E. Miller, Kimberly Vest and Amy E. Draut

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrf.20040

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      Key points

      • Aeolian transport models have difficulty in vegetated landscapes
      • The model was outperforms others in predicting aeolian transport
      • Vegetation changes the distribution of shear stress on the surface
    22. Potential dust emissions from the southern Kalahari's dunelands (pages 307–314)

      Abinash Bhattachan, Paolo D'Odorico, Gregory S. Okin and Kebonyethata Dintwe

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrf.20043

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      Key Points

      • The remobilization of Kalahari dunes could increase dust emissions
      • The increased dust emissions may impact Southern Ocean's productivity
      • Vegetation loss in Kalahari leads to nutrient loss in soils
    23. Trends in Antarctic Peninsula surface melting conditions from observations and regional climate modeling (pages 315–330)

      N. E. Barrand, D. G. Vaughan, N. Steiner, M. Tedesco, P. Kuipers Munneke, M. R. van den Broeke and J. S. Hosking

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012JF002559

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      Key Points

      • Positive trends in the duration of melting conditions on the Antarctic Peninsula
      • Melt season onset and duration climatologies from satellite microwave data
      • Close reproduction of melt observations by regional climate modelling

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