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Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences

Cover image for Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences

June 2013

Volume 118, Issue 2

Pages 373–962

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. peatlands

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      Quantifying landscape morphology influence on peatland lateral expansion using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and peat core analysis (pages 373–384)

      Julie Loisel, Zicheng Yu, Andrew Parsekian, James Nolan and Lee Slater

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20029

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      Key Points

      • peatland surface slope becomes progressively shallower over time
      • power-law behavior between lateral expansion rate and slope
      • peatland expansion becomes slope-limited above a threshold (0.5 degrees)
    2. biogeochemistry

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      Evaluation of the Southern Ocean O2/Ar-based NCP estimates in a model framework (pages 385–399)

      Bror F. Jonsson, Scott C. Doney, John Dunne and Michael Bender

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20032

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      Key Points

      • The O2/Ar method show significant non-uniform errors when evaluated in a GCM
      • There are lags between biological production and O2 outgassing in the ocean
      • The O2 flux from the mixed layer downwards is significant
    3. carbon cycle

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      Long-term, high-spatial resolution carbon balance monitoring of the Amazonian frontier: Predisturbance and postdisturbance carbon emissions and uptake (pages 400–411)

      Michael Toomey, Dar A. Roberts, Jill Caviglia-Harris, Mark A. Cochrane, Candida F. Dewes, Daniel Harris, Izaya Numata, Marcio H. Sales, Erin Sills and Carlos M. Souza Jr.

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20033

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      Key Points

      • Modeled land use effects on carbon balance of Amazon frontier over 27 years
      • Net emissions 93% of initial forest carbon; secondary forest uptake negligible
      • High resolution imagery (~30m) necessary to monitor smallholder land use change
    4. atmosphere-ecosystem interactions

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      Two phytoplankton blooms near Luzon Strait generated by lingering Typhoon Parma (pages 412–421)

      Hui Zhao, Guoqi Han, Shuwen Zhang and Dongxiao Wang

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20041

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      Key Points

      • The offshore bloom was triggered by wind-induced upwelling in the study area
      • Water with rich nutrients uplift up to 50 m as implied by isopycnals shoaling
      • Increased runoff and favorable current directions triggered the nearshore bloom
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      The ecohydrology of forested peatlands: Simulating the effects of tree shading on moss evaporation and species composition (pages 422–435)

      N. Kettridge, D. K. Thompson, L. Bombonato, M. R. Turetsky, B. W. Benscoter and J. M. Waddington

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20043

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      Key Points

      • Reduced evaporation with increasing tree density simulated in peatlands
      • Evaporation decrease counteracts transpiration increase
      • Peatland evaporation controlled by the spatial organisation of trees
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      Nonnative Pacific salmon alter hot spots of sediment nitrification in Great Lakes tributaries (pages 436–444)

      Peter S. Levi and Jennifer L. Tank

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20044

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      Key Points

      • Introduced salmon alter stream nitrogen dynamics in Great Lakes tributaries
      • Sediment nitrification modifies the salmon-derived ammonium subsidy to nitrate
      • Response of nitrifying bacteria in stream sediment to salmon is habitat-specific
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      Contrasting CO2 concentration discharge dynamics in headwater streams: A multi-catchment comparison (pages 445–461)

      K. J. Dinsmore, M. B. Wallin, M. S. Johnson, M. F. Billett, K. Bishop, J. Pumpanen and A. Ojala

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20047

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      Key Points

      • Concentration-discharge relationships were not consistent across catchments
      • Bimodal concentration distributions indicate distinct CO2 sources
      • In the 3 headwater streams, top 30% of flow was most important to total export
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      Reduction of the temperature sensitivity of minerotrophic fen methane emissions by simulated glacial atmospheric carbon dioxide starvation (pages 462–470)

      Carl P. Boardman, Vincent Gauci, Andrew Fox, Stephen Blake and David J. Beerling

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20017

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      Key Points

      • The temperature response of wetland CH4 flux during low CO2 exposure was studied
      • Glacial [CO2] reduces the temperature sensitivity of CH4 fluxes in fen mesocosms
      • Temperature-CO2 starvation interactions may be dependent on species assemblage
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      Spatial and seasonal variability of diffusive methane emissions from the Three Gorges Reservoir (pages 471–481)

      Le Yang, Fei Lu, Xiaoke Wang, Xiaonan Duan, Wenzhi Song, Binfeng Sun, Qianqian Zhang and Yongjuan Zhou

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20049

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      Key Points

      • CH4 emission decreased from the upstream to the downstream before the dam
      • a higher CH4 flux in the downstream river
      • a high CH4 flux in summer, and low in other seasons
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      Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from a headwater stream network of interior Alaska (pages 482–494)

      John T. Crawford, Robert G. Striegl, Kimberly P. Wickland, Mark M. Dornblaser and Emily H. Stanley

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20034

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      Key Points

      • Headwater gas emissions are an important component of the C balance
      • Stream surface area constrains stream emissions
      • Permafrost streams are important sources of methane
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      Satellite observations of terrestrial water storage provide early warning information about drought and fire season severity in the Amazon (pages 495–504)

      Yang Chen, Isabella Velicogna, James S. Famiglietti and James T. Randerson

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20046

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      Key Points

      • Quantify the evolution of ocean-land-atmosphere processes during drought events
      • Water storage deficits develop by the end of the wet season during extreme fire years
      • GRACE satellite data may help with drought and fire forecasting
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      Sensitivity analysis of a process-based ecosystem model: Pinpointing parameterization and structural issues (pages 505–528)

      Christoforos Pappas, Simone Fatichi, Sebastian Leuzinger, Annett Wolf and Paolo Burlando

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20035

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      Key Points

      • Photosynthesis parameters are found to be the cornerstone of LPJ-GUESS framework
      • Sensitivity to parameters controlling water availability is very low
      • Simulated carbon dynamics are in contradiction with experimental evidence
    13. biogeophysics

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      Characterization and intercomparison of global moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) products: Analysis of climatologies and theoretical uncertainties (pages 529–548)

      Hongliang Fang, Chongya Jiang, Wenjuan Li, Shanshan Wei, Frédéric Baret, Jing M. Chen, Javier Garcia-Haro, Shunlin Liang, Ronggao Liu, Ranga B. Myneni, Bernard Pinty, Zhiqiang Xiao and Zaichun Zhu

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20051

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      Key Points

      • Intercompared the spatiotemporal consistency of six major LAI products
      • Investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of LAI (relative) uncertainties
      • Explored whether the uncertainty can meet the GCOS accuracy requirement
    14. carbon cycle

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      Forecasting net ecosystem CO2 exchange in a subalpine forest using model data assimilation combined with simulated climate and weather generation (pages 549–565)

      Laura E. Scott-Denton, David J. P. Moore, Nan A. Rosenbloom, Timothy G. F. Kittel, Sean P. Burns, David S. Schimel and Russell K. Monson

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20039

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      Key Points

      • Forecasting carbon dioxide uptake potential
      • Use of a weather generation model and ecosystem model
      • Predicted that a subalpine forest exhibits higher carbon uptake
    15. biogeochemistry

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      Photochemical and microbial alteration of dissolved organic matter in temperate headwater streams associated with different land use (pages 566–580)

      Yuehan Lu, James E. Bauer, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Youhei Yamashita, R. M. Chambers and Rudolf Jaffé

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20048

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      Key Points

      • Watershed land use affects stream DOC photoreactivity
      • Stream DOC bioreactivity is more sensitive to temperature than to land use
      • Photochemistry removes isotopic and fluorescence properties of stream DOM
    16. atmosphere-ecosystem interactions

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      Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois (pages 581–589)

      Marcelo Zeri, Mir Zaman Hussain, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Evan DeLucia and Carl J. Bernacchi

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20052

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      Key Points

      • Perennials have higher ecosystem WUE than annuals during establishment.
      • Harvest WUE takes longer to increase in perennials, but does surpass annuals.
      • Perennials store more carbon relative to water loss than annuals.
    17. biogeochemistry

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      A novel algorithm to assess gross primary production for terrestrial ecosystems from MODIS imagery (pages 590–605)

      Yuting Yang, Songhao Shang, Huade Guan and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20056

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      Key Points

      • A new GPP algorithm (TGR) based on MODIS data is proposed
      • The TGR model performs generally well in 29 validation sites
      • The TGR model performs generally better than the TG and GR model
    18. boreal forests

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      Recent climate and fire disturbance impacts on boreal and arctic ecosystem productivity estimated using a satellite-based terrestrial carbon flux model (pages 606–622)

      Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Rolf H. Reichle, Ramakrishna Nemani and Hank A. Margolis

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20053

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      Key Points

      • Positive GPP response to warming except for Eurasian boreal forests
      • NEE is less sensitive to climate variability and fire disturbance than GPP
      • Drought has larger regional impacts on boreal GPP and NEE than fire disturbance
    19. greenhouse gas emission

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      Greenhouse gas fluxes and NO release from a Chinese subtropical rice-winter wheat rotation system under nitrogen fertilizer management (pages 623–638)

      Zhisheng Yao, Xunhua Zheng, Rui Wang, Haibo Dong, Baohua Xie, Baoling Mei, Zaixing Zhou and Jianguo Zhu

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20061

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      Key Points

      • N fertilization decreased yield-scaled annual aggregate emission of CH4 and N2O
      • Reduced N inputs inhibited yield-scaled NO emissions and improved NUE
      • EFs of N2O and NO increase with N rate and exhibit large interannual variations
    20. denitrification

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      Nitrate reduction coupled with pyrite oxidation in the surface sediments of a sulfide-rich ecosystem (pages 639–649)

      Atsushi Hayakawa, Mizuho Hatakeyama, Ryoki Asano, Yuichi Ishikawa and Shin Hidaka

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20060

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      Key Points

      • Nitrate reduction coupled with sulfate production occurred in surface sediments
      • Pyrite was a dominant electron donor for autotrophic denitrification
      • Sulfide-rich ecosystem with pyrite near act as denitrification hotspot
    21. biogeochemistry

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      Methanogenic pathways, 13C isotope fractionation, and archaeal community composition in lake sediments and wetland soils on the Tibetan Plateau (pages 650–664)

      Yongqin Liu, Tandong Yao, Gerd Gleixner, Peter Claus and Ralf Conrad

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20055

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      Key Points

      • microbial CH4 production in Tibet lake is quite diverse
      • stable carbon isotope fractionation during CH4 production was relatively large
      • Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were dominant in the lake sediments
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      Molecular evidence for microorganisms participating in Fe, Mn, and S biogeochemical cycling in two low-temperature hydrothermal fields at the Southwest Indian Ridge (pages 665–679)

      Jiwei Li, Xiaotong Peng, Huaiyang Zhou, Jiangtao Li and Zhilei Sun

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20057

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      Key Points

      • We analyzed two Fe-Si-Mn-rich deposits from marine hydrothermal fields
      • Molecular analyses revealed microbial oxidizers and reducers of Fe, S, and Mn
      • Microorganisms could influence the formation of hydrothermal deposits
    23. greenhouse gas emission

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      Hydrologic profiling for greenhouse gas effluxes from natural grasslands in the prairie pothole region of Canada (pages 680–697)

      Irena F. Creed, Johnston Miller, David Aldred, Jennifer K. Adams, Salvatore Spitale and Rick A. Bourbonniere

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20050

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      Key Points

      • topographically regulated hydrologic profiles exist in prairie potholes
      • hydrologic profiles influence greenhouse gas flux emission
      • models that capture hydrologic profiles are more accurate
    24. boreal forests

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      Hydrologic controls on the transport and cycling of carbon and nitrogen in a boreal catchment underlain by continuous permafrost (pages 698–712)

      J. C. Koch, R. L. Runkel, R. Striegl and D. M. McKnight

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20058

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      Key Points

      • Changes in boreal runoff affect carbon and nitrogen transport and cycling
      • Dissolved organic carbon export was greater than mineralization
      • Nitrate was reduced on the hillslopes and in the stream, with only minor export
    25. eutrophication

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      Wind and submerged aquatic vegetation influence bio-optical properties in large shallow Lake Taihu, China (pages 713–727)

      Xiaohan Liu, Yunlin Zhang, Yan Yin, Mingzhu Wang and Boqiang Qin

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20054

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      Key Points

      • Wind waves drive sediment resuspension and affect bio-optical properties
      • The differences of bio-optical properties were attributed to SAV distribution
      • SAV reduces the magnitude of bio-optical properties changes in MD region
    26. biogeochemistry

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      Modeling nutrient retention at the watershed scale: Does small stream research apply to the whole river network? (pages 728–740)

      Rosana Aguilera, Rafael Marcé and Sergi Sabater

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20062

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      Key Points

      • Modeling nutrient retention in an impaired watershed.
      • Nutrient concentration plays a role in retention processes.
      • In-stream retention dynamics far from expected by literature
    27. wetlands

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      Effect of continued nitrogen enrichment on greenhouse gas emissions from a wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China: A 5 year nitrogen addition experiment (pages 741–751)

      Changchun Song, Lili Wang, Hanqin Tian, Deyan Liu, Chaoqun Lu, Xiaofeng Xu, Lihua Zhang, Guisheng Yang and Zhongmei Wan

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20063

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      Key Points

      • GHGs to N fertilization varied among N input levels and gas species
      • N fertilization enhanced the temperature sensitivity of ER
      • high-N stimualated SR more in the first year
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      Intraseasonal variability of terrestrial biospheric CO2 fluxes over India during summer monsoons. (pages 752–769)

      Vinu Valsala, Yogesh K. Tiwari, Prasanth Pillai, Mathew Roxy, Shamil Maksyutov and Raghu Murtugudde

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20037

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      Key Points

      • Intraseasonal variability of terrestrial biospheric CO2 flux
      • Indian Summer Monsoon and terrestrial CO2 flux variability
      • Coherent sturctures of monsoon ISOs and ecosystem CO2 fluxes
    29. biogeochemistry

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      Determination of the piston velocity for water-air interfaces using flux chambers, acoustic Doppler velocimetry, and IR imaging of the water surface (pages 770–782)

      Magnus Gålfalk, David Bastviken, Sam Fredriksson and Lars Arneborg

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20064

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      Key Points

      • Different methods for measuring the piston velocity k were compared
      • The chamber and dissipation k-methods agree, except at calm conditions
      • New k method proposed, based on strong correlation between k and wave height
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      Field-quantified responses of tropical rainforest aboveground productivity to increasing CO2 and climatic stress, 1997–2009 (pages 783–794)

      Deborah A. Clark, David B. Clark and Steven F. Oberbauer

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20067

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      Key Points

      • Tropical forest aboveground productivity shows no directional change over 12 yr
      • Climatic stress dominates interannual changes in production components
      • The possible positive carbon-dioxide response is smaller than expected
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      Simulation of six years of carbon fluxes for a sedge-dominated oligotrophic minerogenic peatland in Northern Sweden using the McGill Wetland Model (MWM) (pages 795–807)

      Jianghua Wu, Nigel T. Roulet, Jorgen Sagerfors and Mats B. Nilsson

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20045

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      Key Points

      • Simulations of the CO2 exchanges from a sedge-dominated peatland
      • Water table and moss water content, are the key environmental variables
      • Sedge-dominated peatlands may not continue as a sink of CO2
    32. biogeochemistry

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      Sources of terrigenous inputs to surface sediments of the Colville River Delta and Simpson's Lagoon, Beaufort Sea, Alaska (pages 808–824)

      Kathryn M. Schreiner, Thomas S. Bianchi, Timothy I. Eglinton, Mead A. Allison and Andrea J. M. Hanna

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20065

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      Key Points

      • Simpson's Lagoon receives POC from a variety of inputs
      • A 3-endmember mixing model indicates coastal erosion is important
      • This is the first study of POC delivery by a high-Arctic North American river
    33. You have free access to this content
      Legacy mercury and stoichiometry with C, N, and S in soil, pore water, and stream water across the upland-wetland interface: The influence of hydrogeologic setting (pages 825–841)

      Jason D. Demers, Joseph B. Yavitt, Charles T. Driscoll and Mario R. Montesdeoca

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20066

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      Key Points

      • Accumulation of Hg in wetlands was enhanced at the forest-wetland interface
      • Wetland hydrogeologic setting influences Hg stoichiometry of soils & streams
      • Hg:C ratio of soil & pore water sources may influence Hg:C ratio of stream water
    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A coupled model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window on the carbon cycle (pages 842–852)

      Joe Berry, Adam Wolf, J. Elliott Campbell, Ian Baker, Nicola Blake, Don Blake, A. Scott Denning, S. Randy Kawa, Stephen A. Montzka, Ulrike Seibt, Keren Stimler, Dan Yakir and Zhengxin Zhu

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20068

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      Key Points

      • Carbonyl sulfide can help falsify carbon cycle models
      • Carbonyl sulfide can aid separation of NPP into GPP and Resp
      • The oceanic COS source is probably much larger than currently thought
    35. Evaporation/Transpiration

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      A model-based test of accuracy of seawater oxygen isotope ratio record derived from a coral dual proxy method at southeastern Luzon Island, the Philippines (pages 853–859)

      Gang Liu, Keitaro Kojima, Kei Yoshimura, Takashi Okai, Atsushi Suzuki, Taikan Oki, Fernando P. Siringan, Minoru Yoneda and Hodaka Kawahata

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20074

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      Key Points

      • d18O and Sr/Ca in coral skeletons were used to estimate seawater d18O
      • Model reproduced d18Osw near Luzon for 1979-2001
      • Better agreement between model and coral in dry season (April-June)
    36. Lake/River-Ecosystem Interactions

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      Absorption characteristics of optically complex inland waters: Implications for water optical classification (pages 860–874)

      Kun Shi, Yunmei Li, Lin Li and Heng Lu

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20071

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      Key Points

      • A new water classification framework was developed
      • Absorption properties were analysised
      • Type-specific absorption coefficients were proposed
    37. ecohydrology

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      The sensitivity of forest water use to the timing of precipitation and snowmelt recharge in the California Sierra: Implications for a warming climate (pages 875–887)

      Christina Tague and Hui Peng

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20073

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      Key Points

      • Change in snowmelt timing alters forest AET
      • Locations of intermediate moisture availability most sensitive to warming
      • Lateral moisture redistribution influences AET response to warming
    38. carbon cycle

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      A canopy radiative transfer scheme with explicit FAPAR for the interactive vegetation model ISBA-A-gs: Impact on carbon fluxes (pages 888–903)

      Dominique Carrer, Jean-Louis Roujean, Sébastien Lafont, Jean-Christophe Calvet, Aaron Boone, Bertrand Decharme, Christine Delire and Jean-Philippe Gastellu-Etchegorry

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20070

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      Key Points

      • Canopy radiative transfer
      • Explicit FAPAR for ISBA-A-gs LSM
      • Impact on carbon fluxes
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      Use of eigendecomposition in a parameter sensitivity analysis of the Community Land Model (pages 904–921)

      M. Göhler, J. Mai and M. Cuntz

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20072

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      Key Points

      • Eigendecomposition is a valuable method for analyzing complex model sensitivity
      • Provide new sensitivity index together with selection criteria
      • Photosynthesis is the model output integrating most information to heat fluxes
    40. You have free access to this content
      Molecular preservation in halite- and perchlorate-rich hypersaline subsurface deposits in the Salar Grande basin (Atacama Desert, Chile): Implications for the search for molecular biomarkers on Mars (pages 922–939)

      D. C. Fernández-Remolar, G. Chong-Díaz, M. Ruíz-Bermejo, M. Harir, P. Schmitt-Kopplin, D. Tziotis, D. Gómez-Ortíz, M. García-Villadangos, M. P. Martín-Redondo, F. Gómez, J. A. Rodríguez-Manfredi, M. Moreno-Paz, G. De Diego-Castilla, A. Echeverría, V. N. Urtuvia, Y. Blanco, L. Rivas, M. R. M. Izawa, N. R. Banerjee, C. Demergasso and V. Parro

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20059

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      Key Points

      • Preservation of biomolecules in salty deposits of Atacama
      • Same salty deposits are found in Mars
      • Mars salt-enriched deposits have a great astrobiological potential
    41. You have free access to this content
      CO2 exchange of a temperate fen during the conversion from moderately rewetting to flooding (pages 940–950)

      Franziska Koebsch, Stephan Glatzel, Joachim Hofmann, Inke Forbrich and Gerald Jurasinski

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20069

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      Key Points

      • Flooding of a degraded rich fen decreases both, respiration and photosynthesis
      • Wetland plants suffer flooding stress if they have grown under drier conditions
      • Photosynthesis is likely to increase after plants have acclimatized to flooding
    42. biogeochemistry

      You have free access to this content
      Spatial and seasonal variability of dissolved organic matter in the Cariaco Basin (pages 951–962)

      Laura Lorenzoni, Gordon T. Taylor, Claudia Benitez-Nelson, Dennis A. Hansell, Enrique Montes, Robert Masserini, Kent Fanning, Ramón Varela, Yrene Astor, Laurencia Guzmán and Frank E. Muller-Karger

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20075

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      Key Points

      • We present a 7 year time-series on DOM in the Cariaco Basin
      • We highlight the importance of microbially-mediated DOM in anoxic waters
      • The horizontal export of DOC from the Basin varies interannually

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