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Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 4

December 2013

Volume 118, Issue 4

Pages 1347–1827

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      In the hot seat: Insolation, ENSO, and vegetation in the African tropics (pages 1347–1358)

      Sarah J. Ivory, Joellen Russell and Andrew S. Cohen

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20115

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      Key Points

      • Atmospheric variability has a dramatic effect on tropical African vegetation.
      • ITCZ position and intensity result from variations in insolation and ENSO.
      • Growing season vegetation controls are both rainfall and dry season length.
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      Environmental controls on coral skeletal δ13C in the northern South China Sea (pages 1359–1368)

      Wenfeng Deng, Gangjian Wei, Luhua Xie and Kefu Yu

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20116

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      Key Points

      • Solar insolation and SST have a negligible effect on coral carbon isotope
      • The Suess effect influences coral carbon isotope over long time scales
      • Coral carbon isotope is controlled mainly by the terrestrial carbon input
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      Nonsteady state carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems of China estimated by data assimilation (pages 1369–1384)

      Tao Zhou, Peijun Shi, Gensuo Jia and Yiqi Luo

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20114

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      Key Points

      • We used two-step data assimilation to estimate C sink of China's forests
      • Results showed that 27 out of the 32 total parameters could be well constrained
      • The two-step data assimilation is effective for regional C sink estimation
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      Timing and magnitude of spring bloom and effects of physical environments over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (pages 1385–1396)

      Hui Zhao, Guoqi Han and Dongxiao Wang

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20102

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      Key Points

      • Timing and intensity of spring blooms clearly show inter-annual variations
      • The start of the bloom is associated with SST, wind speed and light
      • Light and SST are both important to the spring blooms in the region
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      Formation of biogenic sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides in a near-neutral pH hot spring: Implications for the origin of microfossils in high-temperature, Fe-rich environments (pages 1397–1413)

      Xiaotong Peng, Shun Chen and Hengchao Xu

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20119

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      Key Points

      • Abundant biogenic sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides are preserved in the spring
      • Fe oxyhydroxide are not produced by lithotrophic Fe oxidizers
      • Photoautotrophs are involved in the formation of biogenic Fe oxyhydroxides
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      The BETHY/JSBACH Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System: experiences and challenges (pages 1414–1426)

      T. Kaminski, W. Knorr, G. Schürmann, M. Scholze, P. J. Rayner, S. Zaehle, S. Blessing, W. Dorigo, V. Gayler, R. Giering, N. Gobron, J. P. Grant, M. Heimann, A. Hooker-Stroud, S. Houweling, T. Kato, J. Kattge, D. Kelley, S. Kemp, E. N. Koffi, C. Köstler, P.-P. Mathieu, B. Pinty, C. H. Reick, C. Rödenbeck, R. Schnur, K. Scipal, C. Sebald, T. Stacke, A. Terwisscha van Scheltinga, M. Vossbeck, H. Widmann and T. Ziehn

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20118

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      Key Points

      • CCDAS allows us to extend observational information in time and space
      • CCDAS allows us to derive higher-level reanalysis products
      • CCDAS can help to improve the design of the observational network
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      In search of greener pastures: Using satellite images to predict the effects of environmental change on zebra migration (pages 1427–1437)

      Hattie L. A. Bartlam-Brooks, Pieter S. A. Beck, Gil Bohrer and Stephen Harris

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20096

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      Key Points

      • Combined biological data and geosciences techniques to study migratory drivers
      • Zebras predict destination condition on temporally correlated start point cues
      • Cost-effective method using free remote sensing data to interpret movement data
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      Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in coast redwood tree rings respond to spring and summer climate signals (pages 1438–1450)

      James A. Johnstone, John S. Roden and Todd E. Dawson

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20111

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      Key Points

      • Tree-ring stable carbon isotopes reflect summer daytime temperature and SST
      • Tree-ring stable oxygen isotopes reflect spring-summer hydrology
      • Stable isotopes of coast redwood offer potential for climate reconstruction
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      Physical ecology of hypolithic communities in the central Namib Desert: The role of fog, rain, rock habitat, and light (pages 1451–1460)

      Kimberley A. Warren-Rhodes, Christopher P. McKay, Linda Ng Boyle, Michael R. Wing, Elsita M. Kiekebusch, Don A. Cowan, Francesca Stomeo, Stephen B. Pointing, Kudzai F. Kaseke, Frank Eckardt, Joh R. Henschel, Ari Anisfeld, Mary Seely and Kevin L. Rhodes

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20117

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      Key Points

      • Fog effectively replaces rainfall to enable high hypolithic abundance in Namib
      • Hypolithic colonization is light, not moisture, limited at 1% incident sunlight
      • Fog supplied nearly twice the liquid water to the hypolithic zone as rainfall
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      Impact of mountain pine beetle outbreaks on forest albedo and radiative forcing, as derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Rocky Mountains, USA (pages 1461–1471)

      M. Vanderhoof, C. A. Williams, B. Ghimire and J. Rogan

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20120

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      Key Points

      • Beetle outbreaks result in a significant increase in winter and spring albedos
      • Beetle-driven albedo consequences are persistent for at least two decades
      • Beetle outbreaks cause an exponential increase in radiative cooling over time
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      Characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of surface water in the Soudan-Sahel region of Africa (pages 1472–1483)

      Armel T. Kaptué, Niall P. Hanan and Lara Prihodko

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20121

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      Key Points

      • Straightforward, fast, and automatic method for delineating water bodies
      • Temporal and spatial distribution of water extent over the Sahel
      • Comparison/validation of existing land/water mask products
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      Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India (pages 1484–1494)

      M. S. Krishna, S. A. Naidu, Ch. V. Subbaiah, V. V. S. S. Sarma and N. P. C. Reddy

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002424

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      Key Points

      • Preservation controls sediment organic carbon (SOC) rather than production
      • SOC is dominated by terrestrial (57%) than marine organic matter (OM; 43%)
      • Agricultural crops and vegetation controls terrestrial OM
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      Spatial variability in the abundance, composition, and age of organic matter in surficial sediments of the East China Sea (pages 1495–1507)

      Ying Wu, Timothy Eglinton, Liyang Yang, Bing Deng, Daniel Montluçon and Jing Zhang

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002286

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      Key Points

      • Spatial variability in the abundance, source, age in surface sediment of the ECS
      • Contrasting behavior of OM from inner to outer shelf
      • Burial of lignin in ECS is relatively efficient, especially in inner shelf
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      Revisiting wildfires at the K-Pg boundary (pages 1508–1520)

      Joanna Morgan, Natalia Artemieva and Tamara Goldin

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002428

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      Key Points

      • K-Pg thermal radiation from re-entering ejecta is simulated with a new 3D model
      • Radiation varied with distance and direction from Chicxulub
      • Wildfires were ignited in some directions, but they were not global
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      Positive feedbacks between phosphorus deposition and forest canopy trapping, evidence from Southern Mexico (pages 1521–1531)

      Christiane W. Runyan, Paolo D'Odorico, Karen L. Vandecar, Rishiraj Das, Birgit Schmook and Deborah Lawrence

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002384

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      Key Points

      • Atmospheric P deposition varies depending on forest canopy characteristics
      • Deforestation significantly reduces atmospheric P inputs
      • The loss of this input may lead to conditions where the forest cannot recover
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      Carbon isotopes for estimating soil decomposition and physical mixing in well-drained forest soils (pages 1532–1545)

      Peter Acton, Jimmy Fox, Elliott Campbell, Harry Rowe and Marsh Wilkinson

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002400

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      Key Points

      • Analysis of 24 forest soils show isotope dependence on mean annual temperature
      • Modeling suggests that decomposition and mixing are the same order of magnitude
      • Stable carbon isotopes show efficacy for soil decomposition and mixing estimates
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      Improved assessment of gross and net primary productivity of Canada's landmass (pages 1546–1560)

      Alemu Gonsamo, Jing M. Chen, David T. Price, Werner A. Kurz, Jane Liu, Céline Boisvenue, Robbie A. Hember, Chaoyang Wu and Kuo-Hsien Chang

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002388

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      Key Points

      • Daily GPP and NPP are simulated using BEPS at 250 m for Canada's land area
      • BEPS simulations explain the measured GPP variability by more than 84%
      • Total GPP and NPP for Canada's land area were 2.68 and 1.27 Pg C, respectively
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      Contribution of hydraulically lifted deep moisture to the water budget in a Southern California mixed forest (pages 1561–1572)

      Kuni Kitajima, Michael F. Allen and Michael L. Goulden

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2012JG002255

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      Key Points

      • HYDRUS-1D model was used to model hydraulically lifted deep moisture
      • Both hydraulically lift and capillary rise contributed to evapotranspiration
      • Trees and mycorrhizal fungi must depend on the deep moisture in bedrock
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      Regulation of bacterial metabolic activity by dissolved organic carbon and viruses (pages 1573–1583)

      Jie Xu, Hongmei Jing, Mingming Sun, Paul J. Harrison and Hongbin Liu

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002296

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      Key Points

      • Viruses repress bacterial production, organic carbon mainly controls respiration
      • Virus-induced mortality of bacteria is greater in eutrophic waters
      • Riverine DOC input improves bacterial metabolic activity and CO2 release
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      Variability of North Sea pH and CO2 in response to North Atlantic Oscillation forcing (pages 1584–1592)

      Lesley A. Salt, Helmuth Thomas, A. E. Friederike Prowe, Alberto V. Borges, Yann Bozec and Hein J. W. de Baar

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002306

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      Key Points

      • The North Sea shelf pump is affected by the North Atlantic Oscillation
      • Variability in the water mass composition of the North Sea impacts pH
      • The North Sea carbon system responds to forcing on different time scales
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      Nocturnal soil CO2 uptake and its relationship to subsurface soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes in a Chihuahuan Desert shrubland (pages 1593–1603)

      Erik P. Hamerlynck, Russell L. Scott, Enrique P. Sánchez-Cañete and Greg A. Barron-Gafford

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002495

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      Keypoints

      • Desert soils had temperature gradient–dependent nocturnal carbon dioxide uptake
      • Shallow subsurface soil carbon dioxide fluxes were sometimes bidirectional
      • Inorganic carbon dynamics showed clockwise diurnal temperature hysteresis
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      Oxygen isotopes in tree rings record variation in precipitation δ18O and amount effects in the south of Mexico (pages 1604–1615)

      Roel J. W. Brienen, Peter Hietz, Wolfgang Wanek and Manuel Gloor

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002304

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      Key Points

      • Variation in oxygen isotopes in Mimosa tree rings is mostly due to source water
      • Oxygen isotope records show a regional amount effect
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      Seasonal changes in peatland surface elevation recorded at GPS stations in the Red Lake Peatlands, northern Minnesota, USA (pages 1616–1626)

      A. S. Reeve, P. H. Glaser and D. O. Rosenberry

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002404

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      Key Points

      • A GPS network measured seasonal and spatial changes in peat surface elevation
      • Peat deformation models containing 10% free phase gas mimic these measurements
      • Anomalous head measurements suggest accumulation and release of free-phase gas
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      The influence of climate change on recent peat accumulation patterns of Distichia muscoides cushion bogs in the high-elevation tropical Andes of Colombia (pages 1627–1635)

      Juan C. Benavides, Dale H. Vitt and R. Kelman Wieder

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002419

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      Key Points

      • Last 200 years of peat accumulation in remote cushion bogs are studied
      • The influence of climate change on tropical peat dynamics is discussed
      • Rapid growth of peat is related to warmer temperatures and steady water supply
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      Interannual drought length governs dissolved organic carbon dynamics in blackwater rivers of the western upper Suwannee River basin (pages 1636–1645)

      A. S. Mehring, R. R. Lowrance, A. M. Helton, C. M. Pringle, A. Thompson, D. D. Bosch and G. Vellidis

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002415

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      Key Points

      • Post-drought [DOC] was significantly higher in 4 southeastern blackwater rivers
      • [DOC] was more correlated with past than with current hydrological conditions
      • Increased drought may lower export, but raise DOC concentration & mineralization
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      Root and dissolved organic carbon controls on subsurface soil carbon dynamics: A model approach (pages 1646–1659)

      Masakazu Ota, Haruyasu Nagai and Jun Koarashi

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002379

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      Key Points

      • Subsurface soil C dynamics is investigated using a vertically extended model
      • The deeper root penetrates, the more subsurface horizons stores soil carbon
      • Dissolved C transport controls the amount and dynamics of subsurface soil C
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      Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, cool-season precipitation reconstructed from earlywood width of Abies concolor tree rings (pages 1660–1673)

      D. M. Meko, R. Touchan, J. Villanueva Díaz, D. Griffin, C. A. Woodhouse, C. L. Castro, C. Carillo and S. W. Leavitt

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002408

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      Key Points

      • White fir tree rings closely track precipitation in Sierra San Pedro Mártir
      • White fir in Sierra San Pedro Mártir is vulnerable to climate change
      • The early 1900s in Sierra San Pedro Mártir is the wettest period in 353 years
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      Uncertainty analysis of modeled carbon and water fluxes in a subtropical coniferous plantation (pages 1674–1688)

      Xiaoli Ren, Honglin He, David J. P. Moore, Li Zhang, Min Liu, Fan Li, Guirui Yu and Huimin Wang

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002402

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      Key Points

      • A methodological framework for uncertainty analysis is presented and evaluated
      • The framework is applied to Qianyanzhou subtropical coniferous plantation
      • The results can guide future model development and field measurements
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      Variations in high-latitude riverine fluorescent dissolved organic matter: A comparison of large Arctic rivers (pages 1689–1702)

      Sally A. Walker, Rainer M. W. Amon and Colin A. Stedmon

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002320

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      Key Points

      • The optical properties of DOM do not allow a distinction between Arctic rivers
      • Watershed characteristics can explain FDOM character in large Arctic rivers
      • A single FDOM proxy may not be useful across rivers to predict OM discharge
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      Effects of seasonal variation of photosynthetic capacity on the carbon fluxes of a temperate deciduous forest (pages 1703–1714)

      David Medvigy, Su-Jong Jeong, Kenneth L. Clark, Nicholas S. Skowronski and Karina V. R. Schäfer

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002421

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      Key Points

      • Effects of seasonal variation of photosynthetic capacity on GPP are evaluated
      • Seasonal variation of photosynthetic capacity affects responses to defoliation
      • Seasonal variation of photosynthetic capacity affects GPP phenology
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      Comparison of terrestrial evapotranspiration estimates using the mass transfer and Penman-Monteith equations in land surface models (pages 1715–1731)

      Jing Chen, Baozhang Chen, T. Andrew Black, John L. Innes, Guangyu Wang, Gerard Kiely, Takashi Hirano and Georg Wohlfahrt

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002446

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      Key Points

      • The MT equation performs less robust than the PM equation in LSMs
      • ET estimated by the MT equation has a large uncertainty in warm and wet seasons
      • ET estimated by the PM equation is closer to the EC measurements on average
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      Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe (pages 1732–1747)

      Mirco Migliavacca, Alessandro Dosio, Andrea Camia, Rasmus Hobourg, Tracy Houston-Durrant, Johannes W. Kaiser, Nikolay Khabarov, Andrey A. Krasovskii, Barbara Marcolla, Jesus San Miguel-Ayanz, Daniel S. Ward and Alessandro Cescatti

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002444

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      Key Points

      • Projected increase of C emissions from fires for the 21st century in Europe
      • Model performance improved by using bias corrected climate scenarios
      • The net primary productivity limits the sensitivity of fire to climate change
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      The effect of water table fluctuation on soil respiration in a lower coastal plain forested wetland in the southeastern U.S. (pages 1748–1762)

      Guofang Miao, Asko Noormets, Jean-Christophe Domec, Carl C. Trettin, Steve G. McNulty, Ge Sun and John S. King

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002354

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      Key Points

      • Water table affects temperature sensitivity of soil respiration
      • High spatial heterogeneity in soil respiration rate driven by microtopography
      • Over 90% of annual carbon dioxide comes from nonflooded periods
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      Responses of chlorophyll a to added nutrients, Asian dust, and rainwater in an oligotrophic zone of the Yellow Sea: Implications for promotion and inhibition effects in an incubation experiment (pages 1763–1772)

      Y. Liu, T. R. Zhang, J. H. Shi, H. W. Gao and X. H. Yao

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002329

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      Key Points

      • promotion effect coexisting with inhibition effect in an incubation experiment
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      Marine animals significantly increase tundra N2O and CH4 emissions in maritime Antarctica (pages 1773–1792)

      Renbin Zhu, Yashu Liu, Hua Xu, Dawei Ma and Shan Jiang

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002398

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      Key Points

      • Marine animal colonies are the hotspots for N2O and CH4 emissions
      • Extremely high N2O emissions occurred in penguin puddles and seal wallows
      • High N2O and CH4 emissions were modulated by marine animal activities
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      Dynamics of hydrogen peroxide in a coral reef: Sources and sinks (pages 1793–1801)

      Yeala Shaked and Rachel Armoza-Zvuloni

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002483

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      Key Points

      • H2O2 dynamics in the coral reef is different from those in open seawater
      • The reef lagoon accumulates antioxidants, probably originating from corals
      • Antioxidant activity on coral surfaces enables corals to degrade external H2O2
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      Tidal marsh methane dynamics: Difference in seasonal lags in emissions driven by storage in vegetated versus unvegetated sediments (pages 1802–1813)

      M. C. Reid, R. Tripathee, K. V. R. Schäfer and P. R. Jaffé

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002438

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      Key Points

      • The subsurface methane pool explains the seasonality of methane emissions
      • Plant venting stops bubble saturation and long-term subsurface methane storage
      • Temperature models may fail due to decoupled production and emissions of methane
    38. You have free access to this content
      Drivers of increased organic carbon concentrations in stream water following forest disturbance: Separating effects of changes in flow pathways and soil warming (pages 1814–1827)

      J. Schelker, T. Grabs, K. Bishop and H. Laudon

      Article first published online: 24 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002309

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      Key Points

      • Forest disturbance increased soil temperature and soil moisture during summer
      • Increased DOC was attributed to changing flow-pathways as a first-order control
      • Soil temperature was found to be a second-order control on DOC mobilization

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