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Abstract

In 1965 Ringel raised a 6 color problem for graphs that can be stated in at least three different forms. In particular, is it possible to color the vertices and faces of every plane graph with 6 colors so that any two adjacent or incident elements are colored differently? This 6 color problem was solved in 1984 by the present author; the proof used about 35 reducible configurations. A shorter new proof is given here using only half as many of reducible configurations. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.