Liver transplantation for patients with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection: update in 2013



Because of the progress of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), mortality due to opportunistic infection resulting in AIDS has been remarkably reduced. However, meanwhile, half of those patients have died of end-stage liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) with liver cirrhosis and early occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, in 2013, non-cirrhotic portal hypertension due to ART drugs or still unknown mechanisms have become problematic with early progression of the disease in this patient population. Liver transplantation (LT) could be one treatment of choice in such cases, but the indications for LT perioperative management, including both HIV and HCV treatments and immunosuppression, are still challenging. In this review, we update the literature on HIV/HCV co-infection and LT as well as recent effort for modifying allocation system for those patients.