After splenectomy, patients are at increased risk of sepsis with considerable mortality. This risk can be reduced by taking preventive measures, such as prescribing immunizations and antibiotic prophylaxis. Studies from various countries show that a substantial percentage of patients are not managed adequately. The aim of the present study was to investigate the quality of care in the prevention of infections after splenectomy in Dutch hospitals. The research questions were two-fold: (1) Is there an association between hospital teaching status and guideline adherent preventive measures? (2) Which factors contribute to hospital performance?