Dynamic changes of the content of biogenic amines in Chinese rice wine during the brewing process



This study examined the biogenic amine content of the brewing raw material (wheat Qu, seed starter, mash or liquid) during fermentation and during the maturation and storage process. Pre-column derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography were employed to analyse the dynamic changes in biogenic amines during the Chinese rice wine brewing process. Some aliphatic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine) were already found to be present in the glutinous rice and wheat Qu, but the content was below 2.88 mg/kg. None of the amines were detected in the brewing water. The biogenic amine content in the seed starter exhibited a large variation range (16.43–87.72 mg/L), which could influence the total content of biogenic amines prior to fermentation. A much more obvious increase in biogenic amines stemmed from the fermentation process, with the presence of a biogenic amine-producing bacteria and precursor amino amines. In the first 2 days, the biogenic amine content increased sharply, followed by a slow increase over the next 4 days, and the content reached a maximum value on day 6; subsequently there was a decrease or fluctuation in the concentration. After clarification and cooking, the biogenic amine content increased significantly; however, a slight decrease was observed during storage, especially for putrescine and histamine. Putrescine and tyramine were the most prevalent amines in all of the samples. Overall, the content of biogenic amines was found to be within the safe level for human health, ranging from 54.52 to 146. 35 mg/L. Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling