This paper discusses coordination efforts of both donors and recipient countries in the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of health outcomes in the field of HIV/AIDS. The coordination of M&E is a much underdeveloped area in HIV/AIDS programming in which, however, important first steps towards better synchronisation have already been taken. In this paper, we review the concepts and meanings commonly applied to M&E, and approaches and strategies for better coordination of M&E in the field of HIV/AIDS. Most importantly, drawing on this analysis, we examine why the present structure of global health governance in this area is not creating strong enough incentives for effective coordination among global and local actors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.