Homologies of the transversospinalis muscles in the anterior presacral region of Sauria (crown Diapsida)
Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004
Copyright © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Journal of Morphology
Volume 263, Issue 2, pages 151–178, February 2005
How to Cite
Tsuihiji, T. (2005), Homologies of the transversospinalis muscles in the anterior presacral region of Sauria (crown Diapsida). J. Morphol., 263: 151–178. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10294
- Issue published online: 28 DEC 2004
- Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004
- Yale University Fellowship
- axial musculature;
- m. transversospinalis
Homologies of muscles of the m. transversospinalis group in the dorsal and cervical regions in Sauria are established based on detailed dissections and published accounts of lepidosaurs, crocodylians, and birds. Attachments and directions of tendons comprising this muscle group are fairly conserved among the saurian clades, enabling rather robust inferences on muscle homologies. The innervation pattern indicates that mm. ascendentes are the most lateral muscles of the m. transversospinalis group in Aves, and are inferred to be homologous with the crocodylian m. tendinoarticularis based on their topological similarities. It is suggested here that the lepidosaurian articulo-parietalis part of m. longissimus cervico-capitis actually belongs to the m. transversospinalis group because its tendons of origin are shared with those of m. semispinalis. The avian m. complexus and the lateral part of the crocodylian m. transversospinalis capitis have origins and insertions similar to this lepidosaurian muscle, and are proposed to be homologous with the latter. In some birds, m. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda continues directly into the anterior cervical region as m. splenius accessorius, suggesting a serially homologous relationship. Similarly, m. splenius anticus continues anteriorly from m. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis, and both of these muscles lie dorsal to m. splenius accessorius. Therefore, the currently used nomenclature that regards m. splenius accessorius as a part of m. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis and that regards m. splenius anticus as a part of the former muscle does not accurately reflect the serial homologies among these muscles and may not be justified. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.