Embryonic development of Galloisiana yuasai Asahina, with special reference to external morphology (Insecta: Grylloblattodea)

Authors

  • Toshiki Uchifune,

    Corresponding author
    1. Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan
    • Sugadaira Montane Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Sanada, Nagano 386-2201, Japan
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  • Ryuichiro Machida

    1. Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan
    Current affiliation:
    1. Sugadaira Montane Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Sanada, Nagano 386-2201, Japan
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Abstract

The embryogenesis of Grylloblattodea, one of the most primitive of the polyneopteran orders, is described using Galloisiana yuasai with special reference to external morphology. The egg membranes are characterized by an endochorion crossed by numerous vertical aeropyles and a fairly thin vitelline membrane, features shared by Mantophasmatodea. The inner layer formation is of the fault type. Serosal elements in the amnioserosal fold differentiate into hydropylar cells, to function in water absorption together with specialized amniotic structures, i.e., an amniotic strand and a thickened amnion. The germ band is of the short germ type. The germ band immerses deep into the yolk after its full elongation along the egg surface, and in this respect blastokinesis closely resembles that of Mantophasmatodea. The embryological features, i.e., those on egg membranes and blastokinesis, may suggest a closer affinity of Grylloblattodea and Mantophasmatodea. Appendages, ectodermal invaginations, and sternal and pleural sclerites are discussed in the light of serial homology, to provide a new basis for elucidating the insect body plan. Appendages are divided into the proximal coxopodite and distal telopodite, the former being divided further into the subcoxa and coxa. Subcoxal and coxal elements are identified in the mandible as well as in the abdominal appendages. The subcoxa is divided into the epimeron and episternum by the pleural suture in thoracic segments. Likewise, in the abdominal segments the subcoxa is divided into two, although the homologs of the epimeron and episternum are not sclerotized, and in the labial segment the subcoxal derivative or the postmentum is divided into the submentum and mentum. Two coxal endites bulge out from the medial side of the gnathal appendages. The mandibular molar and incisor, maxillary lacinia and galea, and labial glossa and paraglossa are serially homologous with each other. In the thoracic segments the original embryonic sternum or “protosternum” is largely replaced by subcoxal elements, and merely remains as a small anterior presternum and a posterior spinasternum. A major part of the venter is represented by the derivatives of the episternum such as an extensive basisternum, katepisternum, and trochantin and the medial element of the epimeron. The pleuron is derived from the episternal elements or the anepisternum and preepisternum, which bears a spiracle in the mesothorax and metathorax, and the lateral element of the epimeron. The homolog of the preepisternum in the prothorax is the cervical sclerite, but with no spiracle developed. A median ventral invagination arises in the thoracic segments as a spina, and the homolog of the spina develops into the eversible sac in the first abdominal segment. J. Morphol. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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