Immunocytochemistry of the neuromuscular systems of Loxosomella vivipara and L. parguerensis (Entoprocta: Loxosomatidae)

Authors

  • Judith Fuchs,

    1. Department of Cell Biology and Comparative Zoology, Biological Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
    2. Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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  • Monika Bright,

    1. Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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  • Peter Funch,

    1. Ecology and Genetics, Biological Institute, University of Aarhus, 8000 Århus C, Denmark
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  • Andreas Wanninger

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Cell Biology and Comparative Zoology, Biological Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
    • Department of Cell Biology and Comparative Zoology, Biological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
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Abstract

Little detailed information exists on the anatomy of the nervous system and the musculature of Entoprocta. Herein we describe the distribution of the neurotransmitters RFamide and serotonin as well as the myo-anatomy of adults and asexually produced budding stages of the solitary entoproct species Loxosomella vivipara and L. parguerensis using immunocytochemistry and epifluorescence as well as confocal microscopy. The development of the RFamidergic and serotonergic nervous system starts in early budding stages. In the adults, RFamide is present in the bilateral symmetric cerebral ganglion, a pair of oral nerves that innervate two pairs of nerve cell clusters in the heel of the foot, a pair of aboral nerves, the paired lateral nerves, the calyx nerves, the atrial ring nerve, the tentacle nerves, the stomach nerves, and the rectal nerves. Serotonin is only found in the cerebral ganglion, the oral nerves, and in the tentacle nerves. Some differences in the distribution of both neurotransmitters were found between L. vivipara and L. parguerensis and are most obvious in the differing number of large serotonergic perikarya associated with the oral nerves. Nerves arising from the cerebral ganglion and running in a ventral direction have not been described for Entoprocta before, and the homology of these to the ventral nerve cords of other Spiralia is considered possible. The body musculature of both Loxosomella species comprises longitudinal and diagonal muscles in the foot, the stalk, and the calyx. We found several circular muscles in the calyx. The stalk and parts of the foot and the calyx are surrounded by a fine outer layer of ring muscles. In addition to the congruent details regarding the myo-anatomy of both species, species-specific muscle structures could be revealed. The comparison of our data with recent findings of the myo-anatomy of two Loxosoma species indicates that longitudinal and diagonal body muscles, atrial ring muscles, tentacle muscles, esophageal and rectal ring muscles, as well as intestinal and anal sphincters are probably part of the ancestral entoproct muscle bauplan. J. Morphol. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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