The relationship of the hemipenis to the cloaca in copula and sperm storage and transport in the female oviduct were studied in Anolis carolinensis using light and scanning electron microscopy. During copulation, the hemipenis does not penetrate beyond the cloaca, but the two apical openings of the bifurcate sulcus spermaticus appose the openings of the oviducts from the cloaca. Sperm enter the sperm storage tubules between 2 and 6 hr after insemination and small amounts of sperm reach the infundibulum 6 to 24 hr following mating. Sperm storage tubules are embedded in the wall of the utero-vaginal transition, and are formed by the folding and fusion of the oviducal epithelium. The importance of the hemipenile-cloacal relationship and the role of sperm storage in the life history of A. carolinensis are discussed.