Programmed cell death and heterolysis of larval epithelial cells by macrophage-like cells in the anuran small intestine in vivo and in vitro



The degenerative processes in the larval small intestine of Xenopus laevis tadpoles during spontaneous metamorphosis and during thyroid hormone-induced metamorphosis in vitro were examined by electron microscopy. Around the beginning of spontaneous metamorphic climax (stages 59–61), both apoptotic bodies derived from larval epithelial cells and intraepithelial macrophage-like cells suddenly increase in number. The macrophage-like cells become rounded and enlarged because of numerous vacuoles containing the apoptotic bodies. Mitotic profiles of the macrophage-like cells, however, are localized in the connective tissue where different developmental stages of macrophage-like cells are present. After stage 62, the intraepithelial macrophage-like cells decrease in number, while large macrophage-like cells which include the apoptotic bodies and retain intact cell membranes and nuclei appear in the lumen. Degenerative changes similar to those during spontaneous metamorphosis described above could be reproduced in vitro. In tissue fragments isolated from the small intestine of stage 57 tadpoles and cultured in the presence of thyroid hormone, the number of intraepithelial macrophage-like cells reaches its maximum around the 3rd day of cultivation when the larval epithelial cells most rapidly decrease in number. These results suggest that the rapid degeneration of larval epithelial cells occurs not only because of apoptosis of the epithelial cells themselves but also from heterolysis by macrophages. The macrophages probably originate in the connective tissue, actively proliferate, migrate into the larval epithelium around the beginning of metamorphic climax, and are finally extruded into the lumen. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.