Hydrodynamic design of the humpback whale flipper
Article first published online: 6 FEB 2005
Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Journal of Morphology
Volume 225, Issue 1, pages 51–60, July 1995
How to Cite
Fish, F. E. and Battle, J. M. (1995), Hydrodynamic design of the humpback whale flipper. J. Morphol., 225: 51–60. doi: 10.1002/jmor.1052250105
- Issue published online: 6 FEB 2005
- Article first published online: 6 FEB 2005
The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is reported to use its elongate pectoral flippers during swimming maneuvers. The morphology of the flipper from a 9.02-m whale was evaluated with regard to this hydrodynamic function. The flipper had a wing-like, high aspect ratio plan-form. Rounded tubercles were regularly interspersed along the flipper's leading edge. The flipper was cut into 71 2.5-cm cross-sections and photographed. Except for sections near the distal tip, flipper sections were symmetrical with no camber. Flipper sections had a blunt, rounded leading edge and a highly tapered trailing edge. Placement of the maximum thickness placement for each cross-section varied from 49% of chord at the tip to 19% at mid-span. Section thickness ratio averaged 0.23 with a range of 0.20–0.28. The humpback whale flipper had a cross-sectional design typical of manufactured aerodynamic foils for lift generation. The morphology and placement of leading edge tubercles sugges that they function as enhanced lift devices to control flow over the flipper and maintain lift at high angles of attack. The morphology of the humpback whale flipper suggests that it is adapted for high maneuverability associated with the whale's unique feeding behavior. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.