Patterns of spatial and temporal cranial muscle development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae)
Article first published online: 11 JUL 2007
Copyright © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Journal of Morphology
Volume 268, Issue 9, pages 791–804, September 2007
How to Cite
Ziermann, J. M. and Olsson, L. (2007), Patterns of spatial and temporal cranial muscle development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae). J. Morphol., 268: 791–804. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10552
- Issue published online: 14 AUG 2007
- Article first published online: 11 JUL 2007
- Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Grant Number: OL 134/2-4
This article contains supplementary material available via the Internet at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0362-2525/suppmat .
|jws-jmor.105521.doc||260K||A New Staging Table forXenopus laevisLarval Development at Stages of Relevance for Cranial Muscle Development.|
|jws-jmor.10552.tbl1.doc||49K||Supplementary Table 1. Comparison of the stages ( Stage ) as defined in the present work with the stages in Nieuwkoop and Faber ( NF ) (1994), averageage(after fertilization) and number of measured individuals measured from both clutches (at 23°C).|
|jws-jmor.10552.tbl2.doc||36K||Supplementary Table 2. Observations of living individuals from both clutches (23°C); age in days (d) and hours (h). X, animals are younger than Stage 1; y, animals are older than Stage 2.|
|jws-jmor.10552.fig1.tif||2647K||Supplementary Figure 1.A:Chronology of the stages in this paper; pooled data from both clutches. The variation shows that age is only a rough indicator of stage. Large, yolky tadpoles develop more slowly than small tadpoles with little yolk. Coefficient of determination: R 2= 0.85.B:Change in total larval length (yellow), tail lenght (pink) and head length (blue). The fast growth of the tail is important for the fast increase in total length. Coefficients of determination: R 2(head length) = 0.80; R 2(tail length) = 0.96; R 2(total length) = 0.95.C:Ratio of tail length to total length (RTW) of the individuals of both clutches (23?C). Clutch 1: blue spots and blue polynomic regression line; Clutch 2: pink spots and pink spotted polynomic regression line. Coefficient of determination: R 2(Clutch 1) = 0.98; R 2(Clutch 2) = 0.98.D:Development of APM1 (blue) und APM2 (pink) (for definition see text). The upper points (pink) of the ventral angle of APM1 in Stages 1?7, becomes APM2 in the following stages. The lower points are the dorsal angle of the APM1. Lines: polynomic regression of data. Coefficient of determination: R? (APM1) = 0.1265; R 2(APM2) = 0.86.|
|jws-jmor.10552.fig2.tif||29551K||Supplementary Figure 2. Drawing ofXenopus laevisStage-16 tadpole: depiction of APM2 and the length measurements used for Graphs 1?4 (Fig. 1a-d).|
|jws-jmor.10552.fig3.tif||5471K||Supplementary Figure 3. Stage-2Xenopus laevislarva:APM1 , angle between the posterior border of the yolk sac and the ventral edge of the tail myotomes. It is possible to measure two angles. A dorsal angle immediately adjacent to the myotomes reaches a minimum of about 100?. The side of the yolk sac shortens until this angle is no longer measurable. The ventral angle, which can be measured by translational motion of the straight line of the ventral edge of the myotomes, is equivalent to theAPM2at later stages (Fig. 1d). At Stages 1?7 both angles were measured.|
|jws-jmor.10552.fig4.tif||58926K||Supplementary Figure 4. Characters of the head in lateral and frontal view; left: Stage 7; right: Stage 9.|
|jws-jmor.10552.fig5.tif||40314K||Supplementary Figure 5. Stage 11; drawing illustrating the characters used for describing larval stages.|
|jws-jmor.10552.tbl3.doc||16481K||Staging Table Plate 1.|
|jws-jmor.10552.tbl4.doc||16374K||Staging Table Plate 2.|
|jws-jmor.10552.tbl5.doc||13269K||Staging Table Plate 3.|
|jws-jmor.10552.tbl6.doc||13690K||Staging Table Plate 4.|
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