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Keywords:

  • Psocodea;
  • Thripida;
  • Hemiptera;
  • wing venation

Abstract

Two different patterns of wing venation are currently supposed to be present in each of the three orders of Paraneoptera. This is unlikely compared with the situation in other insects where only one pattern exists per order. We propose for all Paraneoptera a new and unique interpretation of wing venation pattern, assuming that the convex cubitus anterior gets fused with the common stem of median and radial veins at or very near to wing base, after separation from concave cubitus posterior, and re-emerges more distally from R + M stem. Thereafter, the vein between concave cubitus posterior and CuA is a specialized crossvein called “cua-cup,” proximally concave and distally convex. We show that despite some variations, that is, cua-cup can vary from absent to hypertrophic; CuA can re-emerge together with M or not, or even completely disappear, this new interpretation explains all situations among all fossil and recent paraneopteran lineages. We propose that the characters “CuA fused in a common stem with R and M”and “presence of specialized crossvein cua-cup” are venation apomorphies that support the monophyly of the Paraneoptera. In the light of these characters, we reinterpret several Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic fossils that were ascribed to Paraneoptera, and confirm the attribution of several to this superorder as well as possible attribution of Zygopsocidae (Zygopsocus permianus Tillyard, 1935) as oldest Psocodea. We discuss the situation in extinct Hypoperlida and Miomoptera, suggesting that both orders could well be polyphyletic, with taxa related to Archaeorthoptera, Paraneoptera, or even Holometabola. The Carboniferous Protoprosbolidae is resurrected and retransferred into the Paraneoptera. The genus Lithoscytina is restored. The miomopteran Eodelopterumpriscum Schmidt, 1962 is newly revised and considered as a fern pinnule. In addition, the new paraneopteran Bruayaphis oudardi gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described fromthe Upper Carboniferous of France (see Supporting Information). J. Morphol., 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.