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Mandibular and hyoid muscles of galeomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii), with remarks on their phylogenetic intrarelationships

Authors

  • Mateus C. Soares,

    Corresponding author
    1. Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    • Correspondence to: M.C. Soares, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Trav. 14, no. 101, São Paulo 05508-090, SP, Brazil. E-mail: mateuscs@usp.br

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  • Marcelo R. de Carvalho

    1. Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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ABSTRACT

The superorder Galeomorph comprises the orders Heterodontiformes, Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes. Recent morphological and molecular support that it is a monophyletic taxon. The phyletic relationship within the Galeomorphi are also well resolved. However, only few morphological characters of the mandibular and hyoid muscles have been employed, and a detailed description of these muscles and their variations may contribute new interpretations of homology and to the discussion of different hypothesis of intrarelationships. This paper provides a detailed description of mandibular and hyoid arch muscles in galeomorph sharks, within a comparative elasmobranch framework, with the objective to discuss putative homologies that may elucidate our understanding of galeomorph evolution. Twenty-eight galeomorph species were dissected, described, illustrated and compared with other elasmobranchs and with data from the literature. The Galeomorphi are supported as monophyletic by presenting the m. levator labii superioris attached directly to the neurocranium, different from the attachment through a tendon in basal squalomorphs. Heterodontiformes and Orectolobiformes share particular variations in the position and insertion of the m. levator labii superioris and the presence of a well-defined m. levator hyomandibulae. Lamniformes and Carcharhiniformes show similar patterns in the position and attachment of the m. levator labii superioris, subdivision of the m. adductor mandibulae, and the presence of an almost indivisible m. levator hyomandibulae and m. constrictor hyoideus dorsalis, similar to the condition, albeit independently, in basal squalomorphs. No specific mandibular or hyoid arch muscle character was found to support the clade composed of Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes, as advocated by recent phylogenetic analyses. J. Morphol. 274:1111–1123, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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