The anatomy of the gas bladder of Diodontidae (porcupinefishes) and Tetraodontidae (pufferfishes) was studied on the basis of dissections and magnetic resonance imaging. Among the examined taxa of Tetraodontiformes, only puffers and porcupinefishes possess a thick walled and dorsally U-shaped or crescent-moon-shaped gas bladder. In the tetraodontid genus Lagocephalus the gas bladder is reduced to a rudiment. The species belonging to the genera Canthigaster, Arothron, and some species of Tetraodon differ in the positioning of their crescent-moon-shaped gas bladder. These observations confirm the close relationship of: (i) Diodontidae and Tetraodontidae and (ii) Canthigaster, Arothron, and some species of Tetraodon. The heterogeneity of the genus Tetraodon is supported by the gas bladder morphology, as previously suggested by molecular studies. J. Morphol. 275:894–901, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.