This article was published online on 5 May 2014. Minor typographical errors were subsequently identified. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected 21 August 2014.
Pectoral fin morphology of batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea): Explaining phylogenetic variation with geometric morphometrics
Article first published online: 5 MAY 2014
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Morphology
Volume 275, Issue 10, pages 1173–1186, October 2014
How to Cite
Franklin, O., Palmer, C. and Dyke, G. (2014), Pectoral fin morphology of batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea): Explaining phylogenetic variation with geometric morphometrics. J. Morphol., 275: 1173–1186. doi: 10.1002/jmor.20294
- Issue published online: 14 AUG 2014
- Article first published online: 5 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 APR 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 7 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 25 NOV 2013
The diverse cartilaginous fish lineage, Batoidea (rays, skates, and allies), sister taxon to sharks, comprises a huge range of morphological diversity which to date remains unquantified and unexplained in terms of evolution or locomotor style. A recent molecular phylogeny has enabled us to confidently assess broadscale aspects of morphology across Batoidea. Geometric morphometrics quantifies the major aspects of shape variation, focusing on the enlarged pectoral fins which characterize batoids, to explore relationships between ancestry, locomotion and habitat. A database of 253 specimens, encompassing 60 of the 72 batoid genera, reveals that the majority of morphological variation across Batoidea is attributable to fin aspect-ratio and the chordwise location of fin apexes. Both aspect-ratio and apex location exhibit significant phylogenetic signal. Standardized independent linear contrast analysis reveals that fin aspect-ratio can predict locomotor style. This study provides the first evidence that low aspect-ratio fins are correlated with undulatory-style locomotion in batoids, whereas high aspect-ratio fins are correlated with oscillatory locomotion. We also show that it is phylogeny that determines locomotor style. In addition, body- and caudal fin-locomotors are shown to exhibit low aspect-ratio fins, whereas a pelagic lifestyle correlates with high aspect-ratio fins. These results emphasize the importance of phylogeny in determining batoid pectoral fin shape, however, interactions with other constraints, most notably locomotor style, are also highlighted as significant. J. Morphol. 275:1173–1186, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.