Seawater at the nanoscale: marine gel imaged by atomic force microscopy

Authors

  • Tea Mišić Radić,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    • Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
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  • Vesna Svetličić,

    1. Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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  • Vera Žutić,

    1. Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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  • Beate Boulgaropoulos

    1. Institute of Biophysics and Nanosystems Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstraße 6, 8042 Graz, Austria
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  • This article is published in Journal of Molecular Recognition as a focus on AFM on Life Sciences and Medicine, edited by Jean-Luc Pellequer and Pierre Parot (CEA Marcoule, Life Science Division, Bagnols sur Cèze, France).

Abstract

The present study introduces atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a tool for characterization of marine gel network and marine biopolymers self-assembly, not accessible by other techniques. AFM imaging of marine gel samples collected in summers 2003 and 2004 in the northern Adriatic Sea provided insight into molecular organization of gel network and associations between polysaccharide fibrils in the network. Initial stages of biopolymers self-assembly were visualized by AFM in a phytoplankton bloom experiment performed in the same aquatorium. Based on AFM imaging and differential scanning calorimetry, the marine gel is characterized as a thermoreversible physical gel and the dominant mode of gelation as crosslinking of polysaccharide fibrils by hydrogen bonding which results in helical structures and their associations. Direct deposition of whole seawater on freshly cleaved mica followed by rinsing was the procedure that caused the least impact on the original structures of biopolymer assemblies in seawater. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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