This article is published in Journal of Molecular Recognition as part of the special issue on Affinity 2011 – The 19th biennial meeting of the International Society for Molecular Recognition, edited by Gideon Fleminger (Tel-Aviv University, Israel) and George Ehrlich (Hoffmann-La Roche, Nutley, NJ).
Special Issue Article
Design of selective production of sophorolipids by Rhodotorula bogoriensis through nutritional requirements†
Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2012
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Molecular Recognition
Special Issue: Affinity 2011 – The 19th biennial meeting of the International Society for Molecular Recognition
Volume 25, Issue 11, pages 630–640, November 2012
How to Cite
Ribeiro, I. A., Bronze, M. R., Castro, M. F. and Ribeiro, M. H.L. (2012), Design of selective production of sophorolipids by Rhodotorula bogoriensis through nutritional requirements. J. Mol. Recognit., 25: 630–640. doi: 10.1002/jmr.2188
- Issue online: 24 OCT 2012
- Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 21 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Received: 1 DEC 2011
- Rhodotorula bogoriensis;
- carbon sources;
- nitrogen sources
Rhodotorula bogoriensis is known as the producer of longer chain acidic sophorolipids (SLs) with a unique hydroxylation position where the sophorose unit is linked to the 13-hydroxydocosanoic acid. The influence of initial inoculum concentration, hydrophilic and hydrophobic carbon, and nitrogen sources on R. bogoriensis growth and SL production was evaluated to obtain a selective SL production. Experiments took place in microtiter plates, used as minireactors, after the verification of its suitability compared with shake flasks.
The common structure of SLs is the 13-[2′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy]-docosanoic acid SL. The analysis of the fermentation media using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector showed the production of four main SLs, respectively, in the following forms: (i) deacetylated (peak A) (C22:0 SL), (ii) 6″monoacetylated (peak B) (C22:0-6″Ac SL), (iii) 6′monoacetylated (peak C) (C22:0-6′Ac SL), and (iv) 6′,6″ diacetylated (peak D) (C22:0-6′,6″Ac SL).
The identification of compounds in SL mixtures was performed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis, and no differences were observed. Besides the four compounds detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector chromatograms, three other SLs was identified, corresponding to mono- and diacetylated C24:0 hydroxy fatty acid SLs. To our knowledge, this work presents for the first time the production and identification of C24:0 SLs. A longer hydrophobic tail on SLs had an important role in the improvement of surface active properties.
The selection of a specific time for fermentation end and the use of different carbon (e.g. glucose, fructose, mannose, lactose, galactose, xylose) and nitrogen (e.g. peptone, (NH4)2SO4 and NaNO3) sources led to a selective production of de-, mono-, and diacetylated SLs by R. bogoriensis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.